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  • Alexander Archipenko

    Alexander Archipenko was born in Kyiv, in present-day Ukraine (at the time a part of the Russian Empire) in 1887, to Porfiry Antonowych Archipenko and Poroskowia Vassylivna Machowa Archipenko; he was the younger brother of Eugene Archipenko.


    From 1902 to 1905 he attended the Kyiv Art School (KKHU), after which he continued his education in the arts as the student of S. Svyatoslavsky in 1906, also in Kyiv. In the same year he had an exhibition, together with Alexander Bogomazov, in Kyiv. Later that same year, he moved to Moscow where he had a chance to exhibit his work in some group shows.


    Archipenko moved to Paris in 1908 and was a resident in the artist's colony La Ruche, among émigré Russian artists: Wladimir Baranoff-Rossine, Sonia Delaunay-Terk and Nathan Altman. After 1910, he had exhibitions at Salon des Indépendants, Salon d'Automne together with Aleksandra Ekster, Kazimir Malevich, Vadym Meller, Sonia Delaunay-Terk alongside Pablo Picasso, Georges Braque, and Andre Derain.


    In 1912,  Archipenko had his first personal exhibition at the Museum Folkwang at Hagen in Germany, and from 1912 to 1914 he was teaching at his own art school in Paris.


    Four of Archipenko's sculptures, including Family Life and five of his drawings, appeared in the controversial Armory Show in 1913 in New York City. These works were caricatured in the New York World.

    © 2013 Estate of Alexander Archipenko / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York


  • Henry Alken

    (October 1785 – April 1851) was an English painter and engraver chiefly known as a caricaturist and illustrator of sporting subjects and coaching scenes.  His most prolific period of painting and drawing occurred between 1816 and 1831.


    Alken was born on Oct. 12, 1785 in Soho London and baptized on Nov. 6 at St James's Church, Piccadilly. He was the third son of Samuel Alken, a sporting artist.  Two of his brothers were George, Samuel Jr., (also an artist) and Sefferien John. 


    Young Henry first studied under his father and then with the miniature painter John Thomas Barber Beaumont (1774–1841), also known as J.T. Barber.  In 1801, Alken sent a miniature portrait of Miss Gubbins to the Royal Academy Exhibition. He exhibited a second miniature at the Royal Academy before abandoning miniature painting and taking on painting and illustrating. Early in his career, he painted sporting subjects under the name of "Ben Tally-O".  Alken married Maria Gordon on Oct. 14, 1809 at St. Clement’s Parish Church in Ipswich.  On Aug. 22 a year later the couple's first son was baptized.  Alken went on to father five children, two of whom were artists, Samuel Henry, also a sporting artist and known as Henry Alken Jr., and Sefferien Jr.


    From about 1816 onwards Alken "produced an unending stream of paintings, drawings and engravings of every type of field and other sporting activity," and his soft-ground etchings were often colored by hand. 


    Alken died in April 1851 and was buried in Highgate cemetery. Although fairly affluent for most of his career, he fell on hard times towards the end of his life and was buried at his daughter's expense.


    One of his best known paintings, "The Belvoir Hunt: Jumping Into And Out Of A Lane", hangs in the Tate Britain and shows one of the oldest of the great foxhound packs in Leicestershire.  A collection of his illustrations can also be seen in the print department of the British Museum.


  • Richard Andsell

    (May 1815 – April 1885) was an English oil painter of animals and genre scenes.  He was also an engraver.


    Ansdell was born in Liverpool, Lancashire, the son of Thomas Griffiths Ansdell, a freeman who worked at the port, and Anne Jackson.  His father died young and Richard was educated at the Bluecoat school for orphans.  He had a natural talent for art from an early age, and after leaving school worked for a portrait painter in Chatham in Kent, and also spent time as a sign painter in the Netherlands.


    He first exhibited at the Liverpool Academy in 1835, becoming a student there the following year.  His animal and rural subjects proved to be popular and he soon attracted wealthy patrons.  His first exhibition at the Royal Academy, London, was in 1840, with two paintings called "Grouse shooting" and "A Galloway farm".  This was followed, in 1841 by "The Earl of Sefton and party returning from hunting," in 1842 "The death of Sir William Lambton at the Battle of Marston Moor," in 1843 "The Death" and in 1844 "Mary Queen of Scots returning from the chase to Stirling Castle."  He went on to exhibit pictures every year at the Academy until 1885 (149 canvases in all).  In 1846, he exhibited his first picture, "A Drover's Halt" at the British Institution, London, and went on to show 30 canvases there.


    In June 1841, he married Maria Romer - the couple went on to have 11 children.  In 1847, the family left Liverpool to live in Kensington in London.


    In 1850, Ansdell started collaborating on pictures with Thomas Creswick, who specialized in landscapes such as “The South Downs” and “England's day in the country.”  He also worked with William Powell Frith ("The Keeper's daughter") and John Phillip, with whom he travelled to Spain in 1856 and painted a series of Spanish subjects - "The Water Carrier," "The Road to Seville," and "The Spanish shepherd."  He returned to Spain alone the following year to paint more pictures there.


    In 1855, Andsell was awarded a gold medal at the Paris Exhibition for his works, "The Wolf Slyer" and "Taming the Drove.”  He also won the "Heywood medal" three times for his work at the Manchester Royal Institution.  He was elected an Associate of the Royal Academy (ARA) in 1861 and a Royal Academician (RA) in 1870.


    During part of his career he kept a "summer house" at Lytham St Annes, in the borough of Fylde, where a district, Ansdell, is named after him. He is the only English artist to have been honored in this way.


    Ansdell died at "Collingwood Tower" near Frimley, Surrey in April 1885.  He was buried at Brookwood Cemetery.


  • Joseph Claude Bail

    1862-1921) was born during a period of intense disagreement in the Parisian art world.  Bail was born on January 22nd, 1862 in Limonest in the Rhone region of France.  His father, Jean-Antoine Bail, was a trained genre painter who was heavily influenced by the Dutch masters and focused his attention on depicting scenes from daily life.  It is clear that Joseph, as well as his brother Frank, followed in the footsteps of his father, as he too would be influenced by these artists despite new interests in subjects and representation during this period in France. 


    In a period of increasing modernity and industrialization, their paintings glorified the past ways of life in France and found a sympathetic audience in bourgeois patrons.

    Presumably beginning at a young age, Joseph’s initial artistic training began with his father who instilled in him a respect for the eighteenth-century French painters such as Jean-Siméon Chardin and the Dutch masters and encouraged him to view their works at the Louvre.  As all three members of the family, Jean-Antoine, Franck, and Joseph, were artists, the Bail family represents one of the few associations of family painters of the Realist tradition remaining during the latter half of the nineteenth century.  They could often be found exhibiting alongside one another at the annual Salons, showing work which displayed similar qualities in subject matter.  After beginning his training under his father, Bail began studying, presumably between 1879 and 1880, in the atelier of Jean-Léon Gérôme, an accomplished painter and teacher of the period.  This was a short-lived period of tutelage as in 1882 he was no longer listed in Salon catalogues as Bail’s teacher, perhaps because Gérôme’s choice of subjects differed quite dramatically from those of his father and those that Bail would follow for the majority of his career.


    Just after his sixteenth birthday, Bail debuted at the Salon of 1878, alongside both his father and brother, with Nature Morte (Still Life).  The still life tradition in France was invigorated by the work of Jean-Siméon Chardin in the eighteenth century and still lifes continued to be a major interest for many artists and many occupied themselves primarily with this type of painting.  They figured as an important element of Bail’s work, and many of his genre scenes also show still life arrangements within the picture, even when they were not the primary focal point.  Bail himself was especially interested in the reflection produced on shiny copper or silver kitchenware, a most poignant suggestion of Chardin’s inspiration in his work.


    While still lifes dominate Bail’s beginning work shown at the Salon, he expanded his early themes to also include scenes from the countryside, animals, and genre paintings, some influenced by their summer stays in Bois-le-Roi just outside of Fontainebleau. Just as Claude Monet would do, Bail studied the changing effects of light on haystacks in the countryside. But as his style progressed, he showed a stronger affinity with his father’s work and that of the Chardin and the Dutch masters, choosing to portray room interiors illuminated by a strong light source. In recalling these past masters and this type of painting, Bail was appealing to the growing middle class as his work referenced earlier highly esteemed painters. Emmanuel Bénézit in Dictionnaire Critique et Documentaire des Peintres, Sculpteurs…wrote of Bail and his interiors, that:


    He excelled at creating in all of his painting a very lively bright light due to the radiant shine of some brilliant point or to the direct projection of the exterior daylight…it’s assuredly the expression of an original and rather harmonious art.  His technique is very delicate and his coloring just right. The composition of his painting, always elegant, is skillfully treated.

    Bail painted canvases of the most diverse genres: All of his works are interesting; but those that one finds the most remarkable are his interior scenes, so admirably and so precisely lit, so harmoniously composed, where the shine of the copper and the transparency of the glass add notes of a perfect precision.


    Bail regularly submitted to the Salons and towards the end of his careers was “hors concours,” or exempt from having to submit his works for jury approval. He received awards in 1885 (Honorable Mention), 1886 (third-class medal), 1887 (second-class medal), 1889 Exposition Universelle (silver medal), 1900 Exposition Universelle (gold medal), and 1902 (medal of honor).  He was also named Chevalier de la Légion d’Honneur in 1900, and was a member of the Société des Artistes Français.  He died November 26, 1921.


  • Federico Bartolini
  • James Carroll Beckwith


    James Carroll Beckwith (September 23, 1852 – October 24, 1917) was an American landscape, portrait and genre painter whose Impressionist style led to his recognition in the late nineteenth century as a prominent figure in American art. Carroll Beckwith, as he preferred to be known, was born in Hannibal, Missouri on September 23, 1852, the son of N. M. Beckwith, who was United States Commissioner-General at the Paris Exposition of 1867. However, he grew up in Chicago where his father started a wholesale grocery business.


    In 1868, at age 16, he studied art at the Chicago Academy of Design under Walter Shirlaw until the great fire of 1871 destroyed everything, including much of the heart of the city. He then went to New York and studied at the National Academy of Design (of which he afterwards became a member) in New York City under Lemuel Wilmarth and later traveled on to Paris, staying there from November 1873 until 1878. In Paris he took drawing courses with Adolphe Yvon and studied painting under Carolus Duran who in 1877 selected Beckwith and John Singer Sargent to help him with a mural for the Palais du Luxembourg.


    Returning to the United States in 1878, he gradually became a prominent figure in American art. His talents as a draftsman secured him a professorship at the Art Students League of New York, where he taught from 1878 to 1882 and from 1886 to 1887.


    As an artist, he concentrated mostly on portraits, figure studies, and detailed renderings of historical monuments, but he never lost his interest in decorative design.  He married Bertha Hall on June 1, 1887, and his friend John Singer Sargent gave them a Venetian watercolor as a present.



  • Frank Weston Benson


    Frank Weston Benson, frequently referred to as Frank W. Benson, (March 24, 1862 – November 15, 1951) was an American artist from Salem, Mass., known for his realistic portraits, American Impressionist paintings, watercolors and etchings.


    He began his career painting portraits of distinguished families and murals for the Library of Congress. Some of his best known paintings (Eleanor, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston; Summer, Rhode Island School of Design Museum) depict his daughters outdoors at Benson's summer home, Wooster Farm, on the island of North Haven, Maine. He also produced numerous oil, wash and watercolor paintings and etchings of wildfowl and landscapes.


    In 1880, Benson began to study at the School of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston under Otto Grundmann, and in 1883 at the Académie Julien in Paris. He enjoyed a distinguished career as an instructor and department head at the School of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. He was a founding member of the Ten American Painters, American Academy of Arts and Letters and The Guild of Boston Artists.


  • Thomas Hart N. A. Benton

    (April 15, 1889 – January 19, 1975) was an American painter and muralist. Along with Grant Wood and John Steuart Curry, he was at the forefront of the Regionalist art movement. His fluid, sculpted figures in his paintings showed everyday people in scenes of life in the United States. Though his work is strongly associated with the Midwest, he studied in Paris, lived in New York City for more than 20 years and painted scores of works there; summered for 50 years on Martha's Vineyard off the New England coast; and also painted scenes of the American South and the American West.

  • Albert Bierstadt

    (January 7, 1830 – February 18, 1902) was a German-American painter best known for his lavish, sweeping landscapes of the American West. In obtaining the subject matter for these works, Bierstadt joined several journeys of the Westward Expansion. Though not the first artist to record these sites, Bierstadt was the foremost painter of these scenes for the remainder of the 19th century.


    Bierstadt was part of the Hudson River School, not an institution but rather an informal group of like-minded painters. The Hudson River School style involved carefully detailed paintings with romantic, almost glowing lighting, sometimes called luminism. An important interpreter of the western landscape, Bierstadt, along with Thomas Moran, is also grouped with the Rocky Mountain School.

  • Henri Biva

    (23 January 1848 – 2 February 1929) was a French artist, known for his landscape paintings and still lifes. He focused primarily on the western suburbs of Paris, painting outdoors in the plein-air tradition; his style ranging between Post-Impressionism and Realism with a strong Naturalist component. Biva's pictures are characterized by intricate strokes and a pure palette bathed with warm natural light (Biva devoted great attention to light effects). The artist was a member of the Société des Artistes Français and a Knight of the Legion of Honour (Chevalier de la Légion d'Honneur).

  • Harriet Blackstone

    A classicist painter, Harriet Blackstone was a descendant of William Blackstone, recalled by history as an 'idealist and solitary', who had settled in Boston before its first group of inhabitants arrived.


    She was born in New Hartford, New York, and moved to Chicago with her family in 1883 when she was a teenager. Before turning to art, she was a teacher of elocution and drama at Galesburg, Illinois High School. In 1903, when she was thirty eight, she began the study of art.


  • Ralph Alber Blakelock

    (October 15, 1847 – August 9, 1919) was a Romanticist painter from the United States. Ralph Blakelock was born in New York City on October 15, 1847. His father was a successful physician. Blakelock initially set out to follow in his footsteps, and in 1864 began studies at the Free Academy of the City of New York (now known as the City College). He dropped out after his third term, opting to forgo formal education.


    From 1869 to 1872, he traveled alone through the American West, wandering far from American settlements and spending time among the American Indians. Largely self-taught as an artist, he began producing competent landscapes, as well as scenes of Indian life, based on his notebooks he filled while traveling and on his personal memories and feelings. 


    Blakelock's works were exhibited in the National Academy of Design.  Blakelock taught himself to paint through trial and error, and continued to use improvisation as an artistic method throughout his life.  He was also an accomplished musician, and would use his improvised piano compositions as inspiration for his paintings.  He would work on paintings for years, building layers and then scoring, scraping, or rubbing them away.


  • Ernest Blummenschein

    (26 May 1874 – 6 June 1960) was an American artist and founding member of the Taos Society of Artists. He is noted for paintings of Native Americans, New Mexico and the American Southwest.


    Ernest Blumenschein was born on May 26, 1874 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. When four years later his mother died, his father accepted a position as director of the Dayton Philharmonic in Ohio, where Blumenschein grew up. When he finished high school, Blumenschein received a scholarship to study violin at the Cincinnati College of Music.


    While in Cincinnati, he also attended an illustration course from Fernand Lungren at the Cincinnati Art Academy, causing him to change his studies from music to art. He moved to New York City in 1892, studying at the Art Students League of New York. Attracted by the idea of studying art in Europe, he enrolled at the Académie Julian in Paris in 1894. There he met and became friends with Bert Phillips and the older and more experienced artist Joseph Henry Sharp, who told the two younger artists about his 1893 visit to Taos, New Mexico.

  • Henry John Boddington

    (1811 – 11 April 1865) was an English landscape painter during the Victorian era, and a member of the Williams family of painters.


    Henry John Boddington was born Henry John Williams on October 14, 1811 in London. He was the second son of the painter Edward Williams (1781-1855) and Ann Hildebrandt (c.1780-1851), and a member of the Williams family of painters, who were related to such famous artists as James Ward, R.A. and George Morland. His father was a well-known landscape artist who taught him how to paint; otherwise he received no formal instruction.


    In 1832, when just of age, he married Clarissa (Clara) Eliza Boddington (daughter of John Boddington), and adopted her surname, becoming Henry John Boddington, in order to distinguish his work from that of his brothers and other relatives; They had one child, Edwin Henry Boddington, (October 14, 1836, Islington – 1905), who also became a painter. After a few years of great poverty and struggle, Henry John became a very prosperous artist. He lived first at Pentonville, then moved to Fulham, then Hammersmith, and finally in 1854 to Barnes, then in Surrey.


    His earliest pictures depicted the scenery of Surrey and the banks of the Thames. Work of his was first exhibited at the Royal Academy, London in 1837, and from 1839 onwards one or two of his pictures were exhibited there every year until his death and four years after it. He showed even more paintings at the Society of British Artists in Suffolk Street. His name appears for the first time in the catalogue for 1837, and in 1842, he became a member of the society (RBA), afterwards exhibiting there an average of ten pictures a year until his death. In 1843, he visited Devonshire, staying at Ashburton; in 1846 the English Lake District; and in 1847, for the first time, North Wales, which, especially the country around Betws-Y-Coed and Dolgelly, became his favorite working-ground. Boddington also painted in Scotland, Yorkshire, and other parts of England, but never traveled to the continent.


    The Dictionary of National Biography described Boddington as "of a humorous, amiable, and manly character". After suffering for several years from a progressive disease of the brain, he died at his home in Barnes on April 11, 1865.


  • Frank Myers Boggs

    Frank-Myers Boggs was born in Springfield, Ohio on December 6, 1855 and died in Meudon (Hauts- de-Seine), France August 8, 1926. He was a painter, watercolorist and engraver. Boggs is an American-expatriate from the French school.


    He received his formal training at the Beaux-Arts Academie under Jean Léon Gérôme (1824-1904) in Paris. Boggs regularly exhibited at the Salon des Artists Francais where he was awarded Hors Concours (exceptional). At the Universal Exposition of 1889, Frank-Myers Boggs was awarded the Silver medal.


    Boggs loved France which is witnessed through his atmospheric paintings of its streets, ports, and monuments. He paintings and watercolors placed the viewer on the banks of the Seine on a windy, stormy rain soaked day or on a cloudy spring day at the Marche de Puse. You may also find yourself walking through a small village just out side of Paris, ankle deep in the snow. He used Notre-Dame as a backdrop, as viewed looking up the Seine from quai de Bercy or down the Seine from Pont Royal. His spontaneous paintings lead you on a journey through Paris, down the grand boulevards and past the tour Eiffel. You walk by Les Halles and down the Seine by l’ancien Trocadero. He places you in the middle of the busy Place de Concorde looking up the Champs-Elysees at the Arc de Triomphe and then to the noisy train station. Boggs exposes his romance with Paris and France through the eyes of an artist having an affair. Boggs also painted Holland, Venice and Belgium. He painted the Ports in Normandy and La Rochelle. He found inspiration from quaint villages and markets.


  •  Eugene Boudin

    (12 July 1824 – 8 August 1898) was one of the first French landscape painters to paint outdoors. Boudin was a marine painter, and expert in the rendering of all that goes upon the sea and along its shores. His pastels, summary and economic, garnered the splendid eulogy of Baudelaire, and Corot who, gazing at his pictures, said to him, "You are the master of the sky." Born at Honfleur, France, he worked in a small art shop where Claude Monet displayed his art work Le Havre and Honfleur across the estuary of the Seine. But before old age came on him, Boudin's father abandoned seafaring, and his son gave it up too, having no real vocation for it, though he preserved to his last days much of a sailor's character, frankness, accessibility, and open-heartedness.


    In 1835, his family moved to Le Havre, where his father established himself as stationer and frame-maker. He began work the next year as an assistant in a stationery and framing store before opening his own small shop. There he came into contact with artists working in the area and exhibited in his shop the paintings of Constant Troyon and Jean-François Millet, who, along with Jean-Baptiste Isabey and Thomas Couture whom he met during this time, encouraged young Boudin to follow an artistic career. At the age of 22 he abandoned the world of commerce, started painting full-time, and traveled to Paris the following year and then through Flanders. In 1850 he earned a scholarship that enabled him to move to Paris, although he often returned to paint in Normandy and, from 1855, made regular trips to Brittany.


    Dutch 17th century masters profoundly influenced him, and on meeting the Dutch painter Johan Jongkind, who already made his mark in French artistic circles, Boudin was advised by his new friend to paint outdoors (en plein air). He also worked with Troyon and Isabey, and in 1859 met Gustave Courbet who introduced him to Charles Baudelaire, the first critic to draw Boudin’s talents to public attention when the artist made his debut at the 1859 Paris Salon.


    In 1856/57 Boudin befriended the young Claude Monet, then only 18, and persuaded him to give up his teenage caricature drawings and to become a landscape painter, helping to instill in him a love of bright hues and the play of light on water later evident in Monet's Impressionist paintings. The two remained lifelong friends and Monet later paid tribute to Boudin’s early influence. Boudin joined Monet and his young friends in the first Impressionist exhibition in 1874, but never considered himself a radical or innovator.


  • George Boyle


  • Lloyd Branson - Attributed

    (1854–1925) was an American artist best known for his portraits of Southern politicians and depictions of early East Tennessee history. One of the most influential figures in Knoxville's early art circles, Branson received training at the National Academy of Design in the 1870s and subsequently toured the great art centers of Europe. After returning to Knoxville, he operated a portrait shop with photographer Frank McCrary. He was a mentor to fellow Knoxville artist Catherine Wiley, and is credited with discovering twentieth-century portraitist Beauford Delaney.


    Branson was born in what is now Union County, Tennessee (then part of Knox County) to English parents. Around the time of the Civil War, a Knoxville physician named John Boyd noticed a sketch of Ulysses S. Grant Branson had made on a cigar box, and suggested Branson's parents send him to Knoxville for academic training. In 1871, Branson drew favorable attention for his exhibition at the East Tennessee Division Fair.


    Branson moved to New York in 1873, where he attended the National Academy of Design. Two years later, he captured first prize at one of the Academy's exhibitions, which earned him a scholarship to receive further training in Paris (some of Branson's later work showed elements of the French Barbizon school). By 1876, he had returned to Knoxville, and quickly became a leading figure in the city's art community. He painted fellow Knoxville artist Adelia Armstrong Lutz in 1878, and became a regular at the masquerade balls attended by the city's elite at the Lamar House Hotel. Branson won the gold medal for an exhibition at the 1885 Cotton States Exposition in Atlanta.


    In 1889, Branson and photographer Frank McCrary formed Branson and McCrary, a portraiture company that operated out of a three-story building on Gay Street in Knoxville. The company specialized in oil-painted photographs, oil copies, crayon-and-oil sketches, and illustrated souvenirs. Branson also taught art classes in the building, often to members of Knoxville's upper class. Impressionist Catherine Wiley was arguably his most well-known student during this period.


    Branson reached the height of his career in 1910, when his work, Hauling Marble, won the gold medal at Knoxville's Appalachian Exposition. In the early 1920s, Branson began giving lessons to a young Beauford Delaney, whose sketches had impressed Branson. In 1924, Branson arranged to send Delaney to an art school in Boston to receive further instruction. Branson died suddenly on June 12, 1925. He is buried in Old Gray Cemetery in Knoxville.

  • Georges Braque

    (May 13, 1882 –August 31, 1963) was a major 20th-century French painter and sculptor who, along with Pablo Picasso, developed the art style known as Cubism.


    Georges Braque was born on May 13, 1882, in Argenteuil, Val-d'Oise. He grew up in Le Havre and trained to be a house painter and decorator like his father and grandfather. However, he also studied artistic painting during evenings at the École des Beaux-Arts, in Le Havre, from about 1897 to 1899. In Paris, he apprenticed with a decorator and was awarded his certificate in 1902. The next year, he attended the Académie Humbert, also in Paris, and painted there until 1904. It was here that he met Marie Laurencin and Francis Picabia.


    © 2013 Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York / ADAGP, Paris

  • George Hendrik Breitner

    (September 12, 1857 – June 5, 1923) was a Dutch painter and photographer.


    George Hendrik Breitner was born in Rotterdam, Netherlands. From 1876–1880 he attended the Art Academy in The Hague where his extraordinary talent was rewarded on various occasions. From October 1878 till April 1879 he worked as an art teacher at the Leiden academy Ars Aemula Naturae. In 1880 he was expelled from the Art Academy of The Hague for misconduct, because he had destroyed the regulations-board. In the same year he lived at landscapist Willem Maris's place at Loosduinen and was accepted as a member of Pulchri Studio, an important artist's society in The Hague. Later, he distanced himself from the Hague School and today he is generally regarded as an Amsterdam Impressionist.


    From 1880-1881, he worked at the famous Panorama Mesdag together with Hendrik Mesdag, S. Mesdag-van Houten, Theophile de Bock and Barend Blommers. In 1882, he met and worked together with Vincent van Gogh, with whom he often went sketching in the poorer areas of The Hague. Breitner preferred working-class models: laborers, servant girls and people from the lower class districts. Interest in the lot of the common people, which many artists felt in that period, was nurtured by the social conscience of French writers such as Emile Zola.


    He was associated with the Dutch literary group known as the Tachtigers (English translation: "Eighty-ers"). This was a group that championed impressionism and naturalism against romanticism, influencing other painters such as Isaac Israëls, Willem Witsen, and poets like Willem Kloos.

    In 1886, he entered the Rijksakademie of Amsterdam, but soon it became clear that Breitner was far beyond the level of education offered there.


    Breitner saw himself as 'le peintre du peuple', the people's painter. He was the painter of city views par excellence: wooden foundation piles by the harbour, demolition work and construction sites in the old centre, horse trams on the Dam, or canals in the rain. With his nervous brush strokes, he captured the dynamic street life. By 1890, cameras were affordable, and Breitner had a much better instrument to satisfy his ambitions. He became very interested in capturing movement and illumination in the city, and became a master in doing this. It is not impossible that Breitner's preference for cloudy weather conditions and a greyish and brownish palette resulted from certain limitations of the photographic material.


    Breitner also painted female nudes, but just like Rembrandt he was criticized because his nudes were painted too realistically and did not resemble the common ideal of beauty. In his own time Breitner's paintings were admired by artists and art lovers, but often despised by the Dutch art critics for their raw and realistic nature.


  • Bernard Buffet

    (July 10, 1928 –October 4, 1999) was a French painter of Expressionism and a member of the anti-abstract art group "L'homme Témoin" (the Witness-Man).


    Buffet was born in Paris, France, and studied art there at the École Nationale Supérieure des Beaux-Arts (National School of the Fine Arts) and worked in the studio of the painter Eugène Narbonne. Among his classmates were Maurice Boitel and Louis Vuillermoz.


    Sustained by the picture-dealer Maurice Garnier, Buffet produced religious pieces, landscapes, portraits and still-lifes. In 1946, he had his first painting shown, a self-portrait, at the Salon des Moins de Trente Ans at the Galerie Beaux-Arts. He had at least one major exhibition every year. Buffet illustrated "Les Chants de Maldoror" written by Comte de Lautréamont in 1952. In 1955, he was awarded the first prize by the magazine Connaissance des arts, which named the 10 best post-war artists. In 1958, at the age of 30, the first retrospective of his work was held at the Galerie Charpentier.


    Pierre Bergé was Buffet's live-in lover until Bergé left Buffet for Yves Saint Laurent.

    On December 12, 1958, Buffet married the writer and actress Annabel Schwob. His daughter Virginie was born in 1962, and later, daughter Danielle in 1963. His son Nicolas, was born in 1973, the same year that he was named "Chevalier de la Légion d'honneur".


    On November 23, 1973, the Bernard Buffet Museum was founded by Kiichiro Okano, in Surugadaira, Japan.


    At the request of the French postal administration in 1978, he designed a stamp depicting the Institut et le Pont des Arts - on this occasion the Post Museum arranged a retrospective of his works.

    Buffet created more than 8,000 paintings and many prints as well.


    Buffet committed suicide at his home in Tourtour, southern France, on October 4, 1999. He was suffering from Parkinson's disease and was no longer able to work. Police said that Buffet died around 4 p.m after putting his head in a plastic bag attached around his neck with tape.

    © 2013 Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York / ADAGP, Paris


  • Bruck-Lajos

    (1846-1910) was a Hungarian painter, born at Pápa, county of Veszprim in Nov., 1846. Though his father intended him for commercial life, he early showed a liking for drawing and painting, and resolved to become an artist. He frequented the Academy of Art in Vienna, and made portraits in private; this latter occupation absorbing his time to such an extent that often he had to miss the lectures and go to Budapest and Erlau in order to complete the portraits which had been ordered. In 1871, after having received a stipend from the government, he went to Italy to study the masterpieces of art. He remained two years in Venice, and then proceeded to Rome and Naples, everywhere producing a large number of sketches and studies. An outcome of this journey was the picture with which in 1873 he first came before the public, "The Rialto at Venice." On his return from Italy he completed his sketches, but succeeded in finding only a single patron, General Türr, who purchased three of his pictures. As a consequence he undertook another pilgrimage, visiting the cities of Salzburg, Munich, Augsburg, Heidelberg, Cologne, Rotterdam, Amsterdam, Antwerp, Brussels, Ostend, and London.


    In 1874, he went to Paris, where, subjected to many struggles, his German styles not appealing to the French taste. Hitherto his style had inclined to idealism and sentimentalism, while Paris demanded the forceful representation of actual life. His first notable painting, "On the Edge of the Wood," was exhibited in the Salon in 1876. This was followed by "The Departure for the City"—exhibited at the Salon, 1877—which made him widely known. Since that time he has been a regular annual exhibitor of pictures treating of Hungarian folk-life, such as "The Letter from the Absent One," "Deserted," "The Emigrant," and "In the Forge." These pictures have become widely known through engravings and photographs, which have found many purchasers in America. Bruck recently removed from Paris to London, where he ranks among the most popular painters.


  • Johann Georg Buchner


  • Guy Cambier

    (1923-2008) was born in Uccle-lez-Bruxelles in 1923. He was a painter of Genre painting, scenes, figures, portraits and still life paintings. At the age of nine years old, he lost the use of his legs caused by a tragic accident. He was self-taught and studied the techniques and works of those artists he emulated, Corot and Watteau. Cambier started to exhibit in 1942, first in Belgium and afterwards in France at the Cote d’Azur as well as in the United States and in Paris at the Salon des Peintres Temoins de leur Temps. In 1957, he received the Parisian award, “Le Prix de la Jeune Peintre”. He moved to the South of France in 1950 and resided in Grasse, where he spent most of the rest of his life. Cambier became a favorite portrait artist of several celebrities and painted such dignitaries as Princess Grace of Monaco, Winston Churchill, Ingrid Bergman and Edward G Robinson. His paintings were acquired by the French government. The exact date of his death is unknown.


    © 2013 Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York / ADAGP, Paris

  • Marc Chagall

    (1887 – 1985) was a Russian artist associated with several major artistic styles and one of the most successful artists of the 20th century. He was an early modernist, and created works in virtually every artistic medium, including painting, book illustrations, stained glass, stage sets, ceramic, tapestries and fine art prints.


    Art critic Robert Hughes referred to Chagall as "the quintessential Jewish artist of the twentieth century". According to art historian Michael J. Lewis, Chagall was considered to be "the last survivor of the first generation of European modernists". For decades, he "had also been respected as the world's preeminent Jewish artist". Using the medium of stained glass, he produced windows for the cathedrals of Reims and Metz, windows for the UN, and the Jerusalem Windows in Israel. He also did large-scale paintings, including part of the ceiling of the Paris Opéra.


    Before World War I, he traveled between St. Petersburg, Paris, and Berlin. During this period he created his own mixture and style of modern art based on his idea of Eastern European Jewish folk culture. He spent the wartime years in Soviet Belarus, becoming one of the country's most distinguished artists and a member of the modernist avante-garde, founding the Vitebsk Arts College before leaving again for Paris in 1922.


    He had two basic reputations, writes Lewis: as a pioneer of modernism and as a major Jewish artist. He experienced modernism's "golden age" in Paris, where "he synthesized the art forms of Cubism, Symbolism, and Fauvism, and the influence of Fauvism gave rise to Surrealism". Yet throughout these phases of his style "he remained most emphatically a Jewish artist, whose work was one long dreamy reverie of life in his native village of Vitebsk."  "When Matisse dies," Pablo Picasso remarked in the 1950s, "Chagall will be the only painter left who understands what colour really is.”


  • Bernard Charles Chiapory

    (French, 19th Century)

  • Charles J. Chaplin

    (1825–1891) was an English artist, engraver and printmaker.


    "You teach me a little about engraving and I will teach you a little about art" was the remarkable offer made by Robert Austin to his new student, Charles Chaplin. Austin, an eminent engraver himself, had become Chaplin's tutor at the Royal College of Art in September 1947. Chaplin, a mature student, was a printer's commercial engraver; he was also an amateur artist whose prints had already received some recognition and had been hung at the Royal Academy summer exhibitions. He had, however, had little formal education or art training. Austin's encouragement was a major influence on Chaplin's subsequent career as an artist.


    The years before World War II cover Chaplin's birth into a large working-class family, his early love of drawing, the accident which left him with only one eye, and his apprenticeship in a large printing works. After the war, he enrolled as a Saturday student at the Royal College of Art and, thereafter, his style developed significantly. Following his retirement from the printing industry, his prolific output continued unabated, encouraged by new contacts in Sweden and Canada. A shy man who loved the countryside and recorded its trees, lakes, weather, wildlife, and the fascinating rural clutter of its farmyard, his family life is revealed in the detail of his work.


    His favorite technique was line engraving on copper, although he used several techniques during his career.


  • George Clare

    (1835-1890) lived and died in Barnet, Hertfordshire; although it is known that he spent some time (during the 1860's) in Birmingham evidenced by the fact that his address is given as 173, Bristol Street, Birmingham for the paintings he exhibited during the 1860's.  As to George's artistic training, it is not clear; however, his technique is a delicate stippling as he was greatly influenced by William Hunt.


    Through his stippling technique, Clare was able to capture the beauty of nature, giving life and individualized each aspect of the painting.


    George exhibited his first works in 1864 exhibiting at the Royal Academy - #356 "Plums, etc.;" the British Institution  #395 "Came¬llia, etc. ," at the Royal Society of British Artists -  #410 "Grapes, plums, etc." and #741 "Camellias &c."  He would continue to exhibit his works till 1874.


    Two of George's sons, Oliver and Vincent, were also artists and became quite famous for their still life and flower paintings.


  • Gad Frederik Clement

    (1867 – 1933, Danish)

  • R.A. William Collins

    (1788 – 1847) was an English landscape and genre painter.  In the late 19th century his work was more popular and highly valued than even Turner or Constable.

  • Samuel Coleman

    (1832 – 1920) was an American painter, interior designer, and writer, probably best remembered for his paintings of the Hudson River.


    Born in Portland, Maine, Colman moved to New York City with his family as a child. His father opened a bookstore, attracting a literate clientele that may have influenced Colman's artistic development. He is believed to have studied briefly under the Hudson River school painter Asher Durand, and he exhibited his first work at the National Academy of Design in 1850. By 1854, he had opened his own New York City studio. The following year he was elected an associate member of the National Academy, with full membership bestowed in 1862.


    His landscape paintings in the 1850s and 1860s were influenced by the Hudson River school, an example being Meadows and Wildflowers at Conway (1856) now in the collection of the Frances Lehman Loeb Art Center at Vassar College. He was also able to paint in a romantic style, which had become more fashionable after the Civil War. One of his best-known works, and one of the iconic images of Hudson River School art, is his Storm King on the Hudson (1866), now in the collection of the Smithsonian American Art Museum in Washington, D.C.


    Colman was an inveterate traveler, and many of his works depict scenes from foreign cities and ports. He made his first trip abroad to France and Spain in 1860-1861, and returned for a more extensive four-year European tour in the early 1870s in which he spent much time in Mediterranean locales. Colman often depicted the architectural features he encountered on his travels: cityscapes, castles, bridges, arches, and aqueducts feature prominently in his paintings of foreign scenes. In 1870 and again in the 1880s he journeyed to the western United States, painting western landscapes comparable in scope and style to those of Thomas Moran.


    In the aftermath of the Civil War, watercolor painting became more popular. In 1866, Colman was one of the founders of the American Watercolor Society, and he became its first president from 1867 to 1871. Colman also became skilled at the medium of etching. He was an early member of the New York Etching Club, and published popular etchings depicting European scenes.


    Colman's artistic activities became even more diverse late in life. By the 1880s he worked extensively as an interior designer, collaborating with his friend Louis Comfort Tiffany on the design of Samuel Clemens' Hartford home, and later on the Fifth Avenue home of Henry and Louisine Havemeyer. He also became a major collector of decorative Asian objects, and wrote two books on geometry and art.


    Colman died in New York City in 1920.


  • Jasper F. Cropsey

    (1823-1900) Cropsey received his early training as an architect and set up his own office in 1843.  He began painting shortly thereafter and first exhibited at the National Academy of Design in 1844.  A year later he was elected an associate member and, in 1851, a full member.  Cropsey's interest in architecture continued throughout his life and was a strong influence in his painting, most evident in his precise arrangement and outline of forms.  He was best known for his lavish use of color and, as a first-generation member from the Hudson River School, painted autumn landscapes that startled viewers with their boldness and brilliance.  He traveled in Europe from 1847 to 1849 and lived in England from 1856 to 1863.  Surviving sketchbooks indicate that Cropsey was in the White Mountains in the summer of 1852 and in 1856.  He may have made another visit to the area in 1878.  His sketches from nature completed on these trips are often marked with color notes as well as the subject or location.  His White Mountain paintings date from 1857 to 1897, indicating a life-long love of the region.


    Cropsey became interested in Luminism after the Civil War and also in watercolor painting.  He founded the American Society of Painters in Water Colors in 1867.


    He exhibited at the National Academy of Design, the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, the Boston Athenaeum, and at the Royal Academy in London.  His work has been preserved by the New York Historical Society, the Staten Island Museum, the Boston Museum of Fine Arts, and the Peabody Institute.


  • Francis Cotes - Attributed

    (1726 –1770) was an English painter, one of the pioneers of English pastel painting, and a founding member of the Royal Academy in 1768.


    He was born in London, the eldest son of Robert Cotes, an apothecary (Francis's younger brother Samuel Cotes (1734–1818) also became an artist, specializing in miniatures). Cotes trained with portrait painter George Knapton (1698–1778) before setting up his own business in his father's business premises in London's Cork Street—learning, incidentally, much about chemistry to inform his making of pastels.


    An admirer of the pastel drawings of Rosalba Carriera, Cotes concentrated on works in pastel and crayon (some of which became well known as engravings). After pushing crayon to its limit as a medium—although he was never to abandon it entirely—Cotes turned to oil painting as a means of developing his style in larger-scale works. In his most successful paintings, particularly those of the early 1760s, the oil paint is thinly applied, in imitation of his pastel technique, and imbued with charm, inviting comparisons with Allan Ramsay (1713–1784) and Sir Joshua Reynolds. 


    One of the most fashionable portrait painters of his day, Cotes helped found the Society of Artists and became its director in 1765. At the peak of his powers, Cotes was invited to become one of the first members of the Royal Academy, but died just two years later, aged 44, in Richmond.


    He also taught pastel skills to John Russell, and his skills were described in book The Elements of Painting with Crayon.


  • Jean Baptiste Camile Corot

    (July 16, 1796 – February 22, 1875) was a French landscape painter and printmaker in etching.  Corot was the leading painter of the Barbizon school of France in the mid-nineteenth century.  He is a pivotal figure in landscape painting and his vast output simultaneously references the Neo-Classical tradition and anticipates the plein-air innovations of Impressionism.


    Of him Claude Monet exclaimed "There is only one master here—Corot. We are nothing compared to him, nothing."  His contributions to figure painting are hardly less important; Degas preferred his figures to his landscapes, and the classical figures of Picasso pay overt homage to Corot's influence.

    Historians have divided his work into periods, but the points of division are often vague, as he often completed a picture years after he began it. In his early period, he painted traditionally and "tight"—with minute exactness, clear outlines, thin brush work, and with absolute definition of objects throughout. After he reached his 50th year, his methods changed to focus on breadth of tone and an approach to poetic power conveyed with thicker application of paint; and about 20 years later, from about 1865 onwards, his manner of painting became more lyrical, affected with a more impressionistic touch. In part, this evolution in expression can be seen as marking the transition from the plein-air paintings of his youth, shot through with warm natural light, to the studio-created landscapes of his late maturity, enveloped in uniform tones of silver. In his final 10 years he became the "Père (Father) Corot" of Parisian artistic circles, where he was regarded with personal affection, and acknowledged as one of the five or six greatest landscape painters the world had seen, along with Hobbema, Claude Lorrain, Turner and Constable. In his long and productive life, he painted over 3,000 paintings.


    Though often credited as a precursor of Impressionist practice, Corot approached his landscapes more traditionally than is usually believed. Compared to the Impressionists who came later, Corot's palette is restrained, dominated with browns and blacks ("forbidden colors" among the Impressionists) along with dark and silvery green. Though appearing at times to be rapid and spontaneous, usually his strokes were controlled and careful, and his compositions well-thought out and generally rendered as simply and concisely as possible, heightening the poetic effect of the imagery. As he stated, "I noticed that everything that was done correctly on the first attempt was more true, and the forms more beautiful."


    Corot's approach to his subjects was similarly traditional. Although he was a major proponent of plein-air studies, he was essentially a studio painter and few of his finished landscapes were completed before the motif. For most of his life, Corot would spend his summers travelling and collecting studies and sketches, and his finishing more polished, market-ready works.  His emphasis on drawing images from the imagination and memory rather than direct observation was in line with the tastes of the Salon jurors, of which he was a member.


    In the 1860s, Corot became interested in photography, taking photos himself and becoming acquainted with many early photographers, which had the effect of suppressing his painting palette even more in sympathy with the monochromic tones of photographs. This had the result of making his paintings even less dramatic but somewhat more poetic, a result which caused some critics to cite a monotony in his later work.


    In his aversion to shocking color, Corot sharply diverged from the up-and-coming Impressionists, who embraced experimentation with vivid hues.


    In addition to his landscapes, Corot produced a number of prized figure pictures. While the subjects were sometimes placed in pastoral settings, these were mostly studio pieces, drawn from the live model with both specificity and subtlety. Like his landscapes, they are characterized by a contemplative lyricism, with his late paintings L’Algérienne (Algerian Woman) and La Jeune Grecque (The Greek Girl) being fine examples.  Corot painted about fifty portraits, mostly of family and friends.  He also painted thirteen reclining nudes, with his Les Repos (1860) strikingly similar in pose to Ingres famous Le Grande Odalisque (1814), but Corot's female is instead a rustic bacchante. In perhaps his last figure painting, ‘’Lady in Blue’’ (1874), Corot achieves an effect reminiscent of Degas, soft yet expressive. In all cases of his figure painting, the color is restrained and is remarkable for its strength and purity. Corot also executed many etchings and pencil sketches. Some of the sketches used a system of visual symbols—circles representing areas of light and squares representing shadow.


  • George Vicat Cole

    (1833 – 1893), was born at Portsmouth, the son of the landscape painter, George Cole (1810-1883), and in his practice followed his father's lead with marked success. He exhibited at the British Institution at the age of nineteen, and was first represented at the Royal Academy in 1853. His election as an associate of this institution took place in 1870, and he became an Academician ten years later. The wide popularity of his work was due partly to the simple directness of his technical method, and partly to his habitual choice of attractive material.


    Most of his subjects were found in the counties of Surrey and Sussex, and along the banks of the Thames. One of his largest pictures, The Pool of London, was bought by the Chantrey Fund Trustees in 1888, and is now in the Tate Gallery.


    He was the father of the painter Rex Vicat Cole. Cole passed away in London on  April 6, 1893.


  • John R. A. Constable - Attributed

    (1776 – 1837) was an English Romantic painter. Born in Suffolk, he is known principally for his landscape paintings of Dedham Vale, the area surrounding his home—now known as "Constable Country"—which he invested with an intensity of affection.  "I should paint my own places best," he wrote to his friend John Fisher in 1821, "painting is but another word for feeling."


    His most famous paintings include Dedham Vale of 1802 and The Hay Wain of 1821.  Although his paintings are now among the most popular and valuable in British art, Constable was never financially successful.  He did not become a member of the establishment until he was elected to the Royal Academy at the age of 52.  His painting was embraced in France, where he sold more works than in his native England and inspired the Barbizon school.


    Constable quietly rebelled against the artistic culture that taught artists to use their imagination to compose their pictures rather than nature itself. He told Leslie, "When I sit down to make a sketch from nature, the first thing I try to do is to forget that I have ever seen a picture."


    Although Constable produced paintings throughout his life for the "finished" picture market of patrons and R.A. exhibitions, constant refreshment in the form of on-the-spot studies was essential to his working method. He was never satisfied with following a formula. "The world is wide," he wrote, "no two days are alike, nor even two hours; neither were there ever two leaves of a tree alike since the creation of the entire world; and the genuine productions of art, like those of nature, are all distinct from each other."


    Constable painted many full-scale preliminary sketches of his landscapes in order to test the composition in advance of finished pictures. These large sketches, with their free and vigorous brushwork, were revolutionary at the time, and they continue to interest artists, scholars and the general public. The oil sketches of The Leaping Horse and The Hay Wain, for example, convey a vigour and expressiveness missing from Constable's finished paintings of the same subjects. Possibly more than any other aspect of Constable's work, the oil sketches reveal him in retrospect to have been an avant-garde painter, one who demonstrated that landscape painting could be taken in a totally new direction.


    Constable's watercolors were also remarkably free for their time: the almost mystical Stonehenge, 1835, with its double rainbow, is often considered to be one of the greatest watercolors ever painted.  When he exhibited it in 1836, Constable appended a text to the title: "The mysterious monument of Stonehenge, standing remote on a bare and boundless heath, as much unconnected with the events of past ages as it is with the uses of the present, carries you back beyond all historical records into the obscurity of a totally unknown period."


    In addition to the full-scale oil sketches, Constable completed numerous observational studies of landscapes and clouds, determined to become more scientific in his recording of atmospheric conditions.


    Constable once wrote in a letter to Leslie, "My limited and abstracted art is to be found under every hedge, and in every lane, and therefore nobody thinks it worth picking up".  He could never have imagined how influential his honest techniques would turn out to be. Constable's art inspired not only contemporaries like Géricault and Delacroix, but the Barbizon School, and the French impressionists of the late nineteenth century.


  • David Jr. Cox

    ((1809-1885) was the son of artist David Cox.  He was a watercolor painter. He was born in Dulwich, but educated in Hereford. He exhibited in London from 1827, although today he is known mainly through association with his father. He died in Streatham on  December 4, 1885 and was buried at West Norwood Cemetery.

  • Danny Crouse

    American 1938-1992

  • Isaac Cruikshank

    (1764-1811), the son of a customs house officer, was born in Edinburgh on October5, 1764. He worked as an etcher in Edinburgh but at the age of twenty-one he moved to London. At first he found employment illustrating cheap books and chapbooks.


    On August 14, 1788, Cruikshank married Mary McNaughton. In the 1790s Cruikshank developed a reputation as an outstanding artist and was in great demand as a printmaker. Isaac etched the copper from his penciled designs, while his wife did the hand coloring and lettering. By 1808 the family moved to a large house in Dorset Street and had saved the great sum of £1,000.


    Isaac does not appear to have held strong opinions on politics and his prints appear to reflect the views of the person who commissioned the work. In some prints he praises the French Revolution and criticizes Pitt's attempts to censor the radicals, but in other work he savagely attacked reformers such as Tom Paine and Joseph Priestley. Most of Isaac's work was done for S.W. Fores who sold them at his shop in Piccadilly. Another important customer was the firm of Laurie & Whittle at 53 Fleet Street. Cruikshank's great rival as a caricaturist was James Gillray, who worked for Hannah Humphrey in Bond Street.


    Cruikshank had ambitions to become a serious artist and had two paintings accepted by the Royal Academy. He also gave art lessons and one pupil, George Dawe, became a well-known artist. However, Isaac's greatest success as a teacher was with his own sons, George and Robert. George Cruikshank became Britain's most important caricaturists of the 19th century.


    Isaac Cruikshank died in April 1811. The death certificate gives the cause of death as "decline," which often meant tuberculosis. A friend, Samuel Redgrave said he died of the severe cold that winter but George Cruikshank believed that it was alcohol that killed him.


  • George Cruikshank

    (1792-1878) was an English artist, caricaturist, and illustrator who, beginning his career with satirical political cartoons and later illustrating topical and children’s books, became one of the most prolific and popular masters of his art.


    His father was Isaac Cruikshank (1764–1811), a popular illustrator and caricaturist. In 1811, when George was still in his teens, he gained popular success with a series of political caricatures that he created for the periodical The Scourge, a Monthly Expositor of Imposture and Folly. This publication lasted until 1816, during which time Cruikshank came to rival James Gillray, the leading English caricaturist of the preceding generation. For the next 10 years Cruikshank satirized with fine irreverence the political policies of the Tories and the Whigs.


    Although Cruikshank continued to publish political cartoons in periodicals and separately until about 1825, he began to do book illustrations as well in 1820. In these he showed his more genial side. It is estimated that he illustrated more than 850 books, and he was one of the first artists to provide humorous, spirited illustrations in books for children. Perhaps his most famous book illustrations were for the novelist Charles Dickens in the latter’s Sketches by “Boz” (1836–37) and Oliver Twist (1838). Cruikshank published a number of books himself, notably his serial The Comic Almanack (1835–53). In the late 1840s he became an enthusiastic propagandist for temperance, publishing a series of eight plates entitled The Bottle (1847) and its sequel, eight plates of The Drunkard’s Children (1848). Between 1860 and 1863 he painted a huge canvas titledThe Worship of Bacchus.


  • H. T. Chmielinsky
  • Albert Marie Adolphe Dagnaux

    (1861 - 1933) was a French painter, pastellist and engraver of portraits, nudes, women, landscapes, genre scenes, river views, cityscapes in the Realist, Impressionist and Barbizon style.  In 1878, he studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris led by Ernest hareux.  Dagnaux participated in the Universal Exposition in 1900.  He died on November 22, 1933 in Paris.  His works are displayed in museums in Paris, Lille, Bordeaux, and Annecy.

  • Salvador Dalí

    (Salvador Domingo Felipe Jacinto Dalí i Domènech, 1st Marqués de Dalí de Pubol) (May 11, 1904 – January 23, 1989) was a prominent Spanish surrealist painter born in Figueres, Spain.


    Dalí was a skilled draftsman, best known for the striking and bizarre images in his surrealist work. His painterly skills are often attributed to the influence of Renaissance masters.  His best-known work, The Persistence of Memory, was completed in 1931. Dalí's expansive artistic repertoire included film, sculpture, and photography, in collaboration with a range of artists in a variety of media.


    Dalí was highly imaginative, and also enjoyed indulging in unusual and grandiose behavior. His eccentric manner and attention-grabbing public actions sometimes drew more attention than his artwork, to the dismay of those who held his work in high esteem, and to the irritation of his critics.


    Dalí attended drawing school.  In 1916, Dalí also discovered modern painting on a summer vacation trip to Cadaqués with the family of Ramon Pichot, a local artist who made regular trips to Paris.  The next year, Dalí's father organized an exhibition of his charcoal drawings in their family home. He had his first public exhibition at the Municipal Theater in Figueres in 1919.


    In 1922, Dalí moved into the Residencia de Estudiantes (Students' Residence) in Madrid and studied at the Academia de San Fernando (School of Fine Arts). In 1924, the still-unknown Salvador Dalí illustrated a book for the first time. It was a publication of the Catalan poem Les bruixes de Llers ("The Witches of Llers") by his friend and schoolmate, poet Carles Fages de Climent. Dalí also experimented with Dada, which influenced his work throughout his life.  Dalí was expelled from the Academia in 1926, shortly before his final exams when he was accused of starting unrest. 


    His mastery of painting skills was evidenced by his realistic The Basket of Bread, painted in 1926.  That same year, he made his first visit to Paris, where he met Pablo Picasso, whom the young Dalí revered. Picasso had already heard favorable reports about Dalí from Joan Miró. As he developed his own style over the next few years, Dalí made a number of works heavily influenced by Picasso and Miró.


    Dalí devoured influences from many styles of art, ranging from the most academically classic, to the most cutting-edge avant garde.  He used both classical and modernist techniques, sometimes in separate works, and sometimes combined.


    In August 1929, Dalí met his lifelong and primary muse, inspiration, and future wife Gala, born Elena Ivanovna Diakonova.


    In 1931, Dalí painted one of his most famous works, The Persistence of Memory, which introduced a surrealistic image of soft, melting pocket watches. The general interpretation of the work is that the soft watches are a rejection of the assumption that time is rigid or deterministic.


    In 1940, as World War II tore through Europe, Dalí and Gala retreated to the United States, where they lived for eight years. They were able to escape because on June 20, 1940, they were issued visas by Aristides de Sousa Mendes, Portuguese consul in Bordeaux, France. Salvador and Gala Dalí crossed into Portugal and subsequently sailed on the Excambion from Lisbon to New York in August 1940. Dali’s arrival in New York was one of the catalysts in the development of that city as a world art center in the post-War years.


    From 1949 onwards, Dalí spent his remaining years back in Spain. In 1959, André Breton organized an exhibit called Homage to Surrealism, celebrating the fortieth anniversary of Surrealism, which contained works by Dalí, Joan Miró, Enrique Tábara, and Eugenio Granell. Breton vehemently fought against the inclusion of Dalí'sSistine Madonna in the International Surrealism Exhibition in New York the following year.


    Late in his career, Dalí did not confine himself to painting, but experimented with many unusual or novel media and processes: he made bulletist works.  Many of his works incorporated optical illusions, negative space, visual puns, and trompe l'oeil visual effects. He also experimented with pointillism, enlarged half-tone dot grids, and stereoscopic images.  He was among the first artists to employ holography in an artistic manner.  In his later years, young artists such as Andy Warhol proclaimed Dalí an important influence on pop art.


    In 1980, Dalí's health took a catastrophic turn.  In 1982, King Juan Carlos bestowed on Dalí the title of Marqués de Dalí de Púbol (Marquis of Dalí de Púbol) in the nobility of Spain, hereby referring to Púbol, the place where he lived. The title was in first instance hereditary, but on request of Dalí changed for life only in 1983.   To show his gratitude for this, Dalí later gave the king a drawing (Head of Europa, which would turn out to be Dalí's final drawing) after the king visited him on his deathbed.


    On January 23, 1989, while his favorite record of Tristan and Isolde played, he died of heart failure at Figueres at the age of 84. Coming full circle, he is buried in the crypt of his Teatro Museo in Figueres. The location is across the street from the church of Sant Pere, where he had his baptism, first communion, and funeral, and is three blocks from the house where he was born.


    © Salvador Dalí, Fundació Gala-Salvador Dalí, Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York 2013


  • Stuart Davis

    Davis (1892-1964) was an American painter and printmaker.  He was born into an artistic family: his parents studied with Thomas Anshutz at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, and his father was the art editor at the Philadelphia Press, a newspaper that included among its employees the Robert Henri circle of artist–reporters. Davis studied art under Henri in New York between 1909 and 1912. His earliest works, which chronicle urban life in the streets, saloons and theatres, are painted with the dark palette and thickly applied brushstrokes typical of the Ashcan school style inspired by Henri. Davis also published illustrations in the left-wing magazine The Masses between 1913 and 1916, and in The Liberator, which succeeded it in the 1920s.


    With his contribution of five watercolors Davis was one of the youngest exhibitors at the Armory show, the international exhibition of modern art that opened in New York in 1913 and introduced European avant-garde art to the USA. In the following years Davis abandoned his Ashcan realist style and experimented with a variety of modern European styles, including Post-Impressionism and Cubism. From 1915 he began to spend his summers in Gloucester, a seaside town and artists’ resort north of Boston, where he painted panoramic landscapes with an artistic vocabulary derived from Cézanne, Gauguin, Matisse and van Gogh. He travelled and painted in Havana in 1918 and in New Mexico in 1923.


    In the 1920s, Davis began to develop the themes and artistic style that characterize his mature work. He painted images of American commercial products in a style loosely derived from Synthetic Cubism. In 1921 he began a series based on cigarette packaging in which the large, flat, overlapping shapes reveal the influence of Cubist collage. The title of Itlksez (1921)—a shortening of the phrase ‘it looks easy’—reveals a further debt to Cubism in the form of Picasso’s word play. From the 1920s Davis’s works share certain characteristics with the paintings of Precisionist artists such as Charles Demuth, whose sharply defined forms and visual puns were also inspired by European avant-garde styles including Cubism and Dada.


    Davis grew increasingly dissatisfied with his work towards the end of the decade, because he felt it lacked the structure of European art, and he started working on compositions freely abstracted from a still-life consisting of an egg-beater, electric fan and rubber glove. The resulting four paintings, known collectively as the Egg-beater series play with the tension between plane and space, allowing the eye to recede along suggested orthogonals, then leading it back to the surface again with the interposition of flat colored planes. In 1928 his predilection for realism briefly re-emerged when he spent a year in Paris painting scenes of French cafés and aging buildings.


    On his return to a Depression-ridden America, Davis tried, throughout the 1930s, to balance his dedication to painting with his commitment to politics. During the period of the Popular Front Davis joined various organizations designed to protect artists’ cultural freedom and economic security. In 1934 he became a member of the Artists’ Union and was elected its President; between January and November 1936 he served as the editor of the Union’s journal, Art Front. In 1936 he became National Secretary of the American Artists’ Congress and its National Chairman in 1938. His personal journals, which include sketches, reveal his concern to reconcile abstract art with Marxism and modern industrial society. His pen-and-ink drawings from this period work out spatial relationships with lines and planes and serve as studies for his oils, in which the element of color adds to the abstract sense of space.


    Davis’s works of the late 1930s, which continue to celebrate the urban and technological environment, are increasingly complex and frequently recall Léger’s brightly colored geometric forms.


    In 1942–3, Davis produced several paintings abstracted from nature, but after World War II he returned for inspiration to the urban environment, maintaining a continuity with the imagery and witty calligraphy of works of the 1930s. His post-war paintings also have affinities with Abstract Expressionism through their abstract ‘all-over’ composition, surface texture and shallow illusionistic space, for instance the paintings from the Mellow Pad series (1945–51), which also contain single words taken from jazz or slang. Owh! In San Pao (1951), based on a work from 1927 entitled Percolator (New York, Met.), demonstrates the artist’s tendency to rework motifs from earlier paintings in a new idiom. This working method epitomizes the continuity of pictorial themes and painting techniques that Davis maintained throughout his career.


  • Warren Davis

    (1865-1928), best known for his paintings of idealized female figures, studied at the Art Students League in New York. He was also a magazine illustrator, and many of his depictions of ethereal appearing goddesses were on the covers of "Vanity Fair."


    Later in his career he became a skilled etcher and exhibited in Europe and the United States including the Pennsylvania Academy and the Salmagundi Club.


  • Alfred de Breanski, Sr.

    (1852-1928) Alfred de Breanski, Sr., was a distinguished landscape painter who became famous for his resplendent views of the Welsh and Scottish Highlands; he also painted many views of the Thames. Often bathed in a flood of golden light, these landscapes usually feature water and cattle or sheep on grassy banks; sometimes a solitary figure is seen the distance.


    Bréanski belonged to the real stamp of those landscape painters who nimbly seized moments of the day. He had a great passion for the Highlands and perhaps more than any other, caught the atmospheric influences of the undulating landscape.


    Born in London, Alfred was the eldest son of Leopold Bréanski; his younger brother and sister, Gustave and Julie, were also painters. He made his debut at the Royal Academy in 1872 and he continued to exhibit there until 1918. He also exhibited at the Royal Institute of Oil Painters and the Royal Cambrian Academy. His many patrons included Sir James Lemon and the Bishop of Peterborough, who purchased the first picture that he exhibited at the Royal Academy “Evening: Softly falls the even light.”


    In 1873, Bréanski married Annie Roberts, a talented Welsh artist whom he met during his frequent painting trips to Wales. They had seven children, two of which, Alfred Fontville and Arthur, were both to become painters. For much of his life Bréanski lived in Greenwich, Lewisham and Cookham and in 1880 he became a Freeman of the City of London.


    The work of Bréanski Sr., is represented in several public collections including the Southampton Art Gallery and the Laing Art Gallery, Newcastle-upon-Tyne.


  •  A.F. DeBreanski, Jr.

    (1877-1957) was the son of the famous Victorian painter Alfred de Breanski (1852-1928).  Breanski was taught by his father and chose to paint in a very similar style.


    Both of them concentrated on landscapes of the Scottish Highlands and often the Welsh mountains and valleys, with romantic mists and brooding clouds, cattle in the foreground and heather and birch trees.


    Father and son were both tremendously popular and remain so today. 


    Breanski exhibited at the Royal Society of British Artists and the Royal Academy.


  • Willem de Kooning

    (1904-1997) was born on April 24, 1904, in Rotterdam, Netherlands. From 1916 to 1925 he took evening classes at the Academie van Beeldende Kunsten en Technische Wetenschappen, Rotterdam, while apprenticed to a commercial art and decorating firm and later working for an art director. In 1924 he visited museums in Belgium and studied further in Brussels and Antwerp. De Kooning came to the United States in 1926 and settled briefly in Hoboken, New Jersey. He worked as a house painter before moving to New York in 1927, where he met Stuart Davis, Arshile Gorky, and John Graham. He took various commercial-art and odd jobs until 1935, when he was employed in the mural and easel divisions of the Works Progress Administration Federal Art Project. Thereafter, he painted full time. In the late 1930s his abstract and figurative work was primarily influenced by the Cubism and Surrealism of Pablo Picasso and also by Gorky, with whom he shared a studio.


    In 1938 De Kooning started his first Women series, which would become a major recurrent theme. During the 1940s he participated in group shows with other artists who would form the New York school and become known as Abstract Expressionists. De Kooning's first solo show, which took place at the Egan Gallery, New York, in 1948, established his reputation as a major artist; it included a number of the black-and-white abstractions he had initiated in 1946. The Women of the early 1950s were followed by abstract urban landscapes, parkways, rural landscapes, and, in the 1960s, a new group of Women.


    In 1968 De Kooning visited the Netherlands for the first time since 1926 for the opening of his retrospective at the Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam. In Rome in 1969, he executed his first sculptures—figures modeled in clay and later cast in bronze—and in 1970–71 he began a series of life-size figures. In 1974 the Walker Art Center, Minneapolis, organized a show of De Kooning's drawings and sculpture that traveled throughout the U.S., and in 1978 the Guggenheim Museum mounted an exhibition of his work. In 1979 De Kooning and Eduardo Chillida received the Andrew W. Mellon Prize, which was accompanied by an exhibition at the Carnegie Institute, Pittsburgh. De Kooning settled in the Springs, East Hampton, New York, in 1963. He was honored with retrospectives at the Museum of Modern Art, New York (1997, 2011–12). He died on March 19, 1997, in East Hampton.


    © 2013 The Willem de Kooning Foundation / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York

  • Jean-Louis de Marne

    (1752-1829) Born at Brussels in 1752, pupil of Gabriel Briard, Jean-Louis de Marne died at Batignolles near Paris on March 24, 1829.


    He went to Paris at the age of 12 after the death of his father, who had been in Brussels as an officer in the service of the Emperor of Austria. He had more success with paintings into which animals were introduced and with genre pieces. He concentrated on landscape and genre painting, in which he was greatly influenced by such 17th century Dutch masters as Aelbert Cuyp, the van Ostade brothers, Paulus Potter, Adriaen van de Velde and Karel Dujardin, all artists enjoying a tremendous vogue and high prices in Paris at that time. His realist landscapes also meet Lazare Bruandet or Georges Michel paintings. On March 27, 1806, an official letter of Vivant-Denon, general director of the Napoleon museum, informed him that the Emperor had chosen him to paint the Entrevue de Napoléon et de Pie VII dans la forêt de Fontainebleau, le 24 novembre 1804, 1808, national museum of Palace of Fontainebleau.


    J. L. de Marne was made an associate of the Académie Royale in 1783 but did not become a full member. He seems to have cared little for official honors and later, in 1815, was unwilling to seek membership of the Institut de France. He was, however, awarded the Légion d'honneur by Charles X of France on April 23, 1828.


    His best period was between 1792 and 1808.


  • Joseph Delany

    (1904-1991) Artist Joseph Delaney was born in Knoxville, Tenn., in 1904, ninth of 10 children and the son of a Methodist minister. As a youth, Joseph attended school in Knoxville, leaving the Knoxville Colored High School at the conclusion of his ninth grade year. The next few years were spent doing odd jobs around town (caddy at the Cherokee Country Club, bell hop at the Farragut Hotel, etc.) until leaving for Chicago around 1924. He returned to Knoxville in 1929.


    Being born to a minister-father, Joe and his family went regularly to church and it was there that Joseph and his older brother, Beauford, discovered their interest in art by drawing on Sunday School cards. In 1930, Joe left Knoxville for New York and soon became a student at the Art Students League.  Drawing and painting from all the various visual resources available, Joe spent the next 56 years living and producing his art in the area of lower Manhattan, SoHo and Union Square.


    Joseph Delaney returned to Knoxville to live in 1986 and was artist-in-residence for the University of Tennessee Department of Art until his death in 1991.


  • Gaston De La Touche

    (1854-1913) Gaston La Touche, a self-taught artist, became a famous and successful French painter and printmaker. From childhood he was determined to be a painter and was supported in this ambition by his well-to-do parents. He admired Zola and provided drypoint illustrations for his novel L'Assommoir (1879). His first paintings (1880s) were domestic scenes in the style of the Dutch 17th century. They were vigorous, harsh and sombre and met with no success: he burnt most of them in 1891. The influence of his friend Felix Bracquemond prompted him to discard his early style and to use the colors favored by the Impressionists; his brushwork is characterized by small, petal-like strokes of color. In 1890 he showed Phlox and Peonies (untraced), both colorful scenes of women, children and flowers, at the Societe Nationale des Beaux-Arts, which brought him immediate success. His fetes galantes and singeries recall French 18th-century art, and he also specialized in Breton subjects, such as Pardon in Brittany (1896).


    He was elected a member of the Societe National des Beaux Arts in 1890, having already been a member of the Societaire des Artistes Francais since 1883. He received numerous medals at these societies, as well as at the Exposition Universelles in 1889 and 1900. After receiving the Legion d'honneur in 1900 (he was later awarded the great honor of being elected an ‘officer’ of this select band), La Touche was given several official commissions for large-scale decorative schemes. These included four views of fetes at Versailles (never installed) for the Palais d'Elysee (1906; Paris, Pal. Luxembourg), four decorative panels showing landscapes with figures (untraced) for the Ministere de l'Agriculture, four pictures representing the arts (never installed) for the Ministere de la Justice (exhibited Salon 1910; Paris, Pompidou) and decorations for the dining room of the liner La France (executed 1912; destroyed in the 1930s). Glowing colors and broad brushstrokes characterize these large canvases, reminiscent of the work of such18th-century artists as Hubert Robert and Jean-Honore Fragonard. In 1908 La Touche exhibited over 300 works at the Galerie Georges Petit in Paris. He painted murals, c. 1910, for the house of the dramatist Edmond Rostand at Cambo, Pyrenees-Atlantiques.


    His paintings are represented in many important collections, including the Museums of Alencon, Le Mans, and most importantly the Museum of Modern Art in Paris.


  •  Lorenzo Delleani

    (1840-1908) attended the Accademia Albertina in Turin, and he first exhibited work at the Societ Promotrice delle Belle Arti in Turin at the age of 15. Having already made his name as a history painter, from 1860 he painted from nature, dedicating himself primarily to landscapes with figures, for example the famous Processions, a genre in which he is today considered as one of the most important artists of his time. Delleani worked on such paintings, all of the same format, daily and dated each precisely. His earliest landscapes were small-scale views of Venice and its lagoon, dating from 1873. In 1878 he completed some smaller works on panel, such as The Orchard, the Seine at Paris and the Market Place at Berne.

  • Narcisse Diaz de la Pena

    (1807-1876) A French artist of Spanish descent, Narcisse Diaz de la Peña worked for a while in a porcelain factory before devoting his time wholly to painting. From his first appearance in the Salon, in 1831, he was greatly admired for his fanciful amorous scenes. Despite the popularity of his nymphs, he was soon attracted by landscapes and joined his friends Jules Dupré and Théodore Rousseau at Barbizon. He regularly worked in Fontainebleau forest where he excelled in creating the effects of light on the foliage and under the trees, with a fluttering stroke and pure colors.

  • Roy Dickinson
  • Francesco Dolci
  • John Henry Dolph

    Dolph (1835-1903) left his home in Ashtabula County, Ohio, at the age of fourteen after the death of his mother.  He began his artistic career by doing decorative painting on coaches and carriages.  In 1855, he studied in Cleveland with Allen Smith and took up the practice of portrait painting.  In 1863, he moved to New York City.


    He turned to painting landscapes and genre scenes, gradually narrowing to a specialty in farmyard genre and animal life.  Dolph found his farm scenes exciting little interest.  In the 1870s, however, he began painting pictures of cats which sold well.  Realizing that these pictures provided a guaranteed income, Dolph worked almost exclusively as the "leading cat-painter of America."


    Dolph was an active member of the New York art scene and helped organize the Society of American Artists.  He became an associate member of the National Academy in 1877 and a full member in 1898.  He exhibited at the National Academy from 1864 until the year of his death.


  • Alexander John Drysdale - Attributed

    (1870-1934) came to New Orleans in 1882 because his father had accepted a post as minister of Christ Church in 1883.  Drysdale worked for several years as a bank teller, studying painting at night with Paul Poincy.  Drysdale enrolled in the Art Student's League in New York in 1901.  He studied with prominent modernists Bryson Burroughs, Charles C. Curran, and Frank Vincent DuMonde.  Drysdale followed these artists' conservative interpretation of French Impressionism. With few exceptions, he painted landscape subjects for the remainder of his career.


    About 1916, Drysdale began diluting oil paint in kerosene and using cotton balls to apply thin skeins of paint, conveying a sense of mood and atmosphere appropriate to the Louisiana bayous and swamps. Drysdale achieved a measure of fame in the early 1920s, a progenitor of the French Quarter art school that persists to this day. He sold paintings to passing tourists in Jackson Square, at art galleries on Royal and Magazine Streets, and managed a local following - it is said that brides commonly received a painting by Drysdale on their wedding day. Accounts abound of Drysdale's predilection for strong drink. Prolific, especially in his later years, Drysdale painted an estimated 10,000 canvases, or about one painting a day over the course of his thirty year career.


  • Guy Pene du Bois

    (1884-1958) was a 20th-century American painter, art critic, and educator. Born in the U.S. to a French family, his work depicted the culture and society around him: cafes, theatres, and in the twenties, flappers.


    Pène du Bois began his artistic training in 1899, when he enrolled in the New York School of Art to study under the painter William Merritt Chase.  In 1902 he enrolled in a painting class with Robert Henri, whose teachings lead Pène du Bois to focus more on everyday life in his own artwork.  Pène du Bois traveled to Europe in 1905 to study under Théophile Steinlen, but returned to the U.S. upon his father's death the following year.


    Beginning in 1906, Pène du Bois worked as an illustrator and cartoonist for the New York American, and he began writing art criticism for the publication two years later. He became the editor of Arts and Decoration in 1913 and also wrote for the New York Post and the magazines The Arts and Arts Weekly. He was also one of the founders of the magazine Reality: A Journal of Artists' Opinions.


    In 1940, he published his autobiography, “Artists Say the Silliest Things.”

    His son was the French-American author and illustrator William Pène du Bois.

    The American artist Jerome Myers recalled his close friendship with du Bois in his 1940 autobiography Artist in Manhattan: Guy Pene du Bois has long been the auditor of my thoughts on art and life. Our contacts were so pleasurable and profitable. So often in his charming home circle, over our coffee, we would spend hours together, analyzing art conditions, forecasting the careers of various artists then commanding the spotlight, as well as of others whose light shone less brightly. I regret that I made no notes of our talks, for to me they were always an inspiration.


    "Guy was then the noted art critic and painter; and even later, when he became the noted painter, he was still the art critic as well, coining his brief aphorisms with a dash of cosmopolitan cynicism, cool wisdom and dry humor. I regretted the intervention of his trips abroad; but our intimate conversations were resumed whenever opportunity afforded, Guy remaining as ever my real spiritual comrade. He was always a wise friend, a wise teacher, the possessor of an individual and rare skill in painting, his life a notable one, his contacts illustrious. I envy him only all that his history entails in names and places, covering so much of our present art history."


    His work is in numerous museum collections, including the Smithsonian American Art Museum, the National Gallery of Art, the Phillips Collection, the Montgomery Museum of Fine Arts, the Brooklyn Museum the Whitney Museum of American Art, and the University of Virginia Art Museum.


  • Jules DuPre'

    (1811-1889), French painter, was one of the chief members of the Barbizon school of landscape painters.  If Corot stands for the lyric and Rousseau for the epic aspect of the poetry of nature, Dupré is the exponent of her tragic and dramatic aspects.


    Dupré exhibited first at the Salon in 1831, and three years later was awarded a second-class medal. In the same year he came to England, where he was deeply impressed by the genius of Constable. From him he learned how to express movement in nature; and the district of Southampton and Plymouth, with its wide, unbroken expanses of water, sky and ground, gave him good opportunities for studying the tempestuous motion of storm-clouds and the movement of foliage driven by the wind. He was named an Officer of the French Légion d'honneur in 1848.


    Dupré's colour is sonorous and resonant; the subjects for which he showed marked preference are dramatic sunset effects and stormy skies and seas. Late in life he changed his style and gained appreciably in largeness of handling and arrived at greater simplicity in his colour harmonies. Among his chief works are the “Morning and Evening” at the Louvre, and the early “Crossing the Bridge” in the Wallace Collection.


  • W. During
  • Delphin Enjolras

    (1857-1945) was a French academic painter. Enjolras painted portraits, nudes, interiors, and used mostly watercolors, oil and pastels.  He is best known for his intimate portraits of young women performing mundane activities such as reading or sewing, often by illuminated by lamplight. Perhaps his most famous work is the "Young Woman Reading by a Window".


    He was born in Courcouron, Ardèche, son of Casimir Enjolras and Delphine Laurens. Enjolras studied under watercolorist Gaston Gerard at the "Ecole de Dessin de la Ville de Paris", as well as Jean-Léon Gérôme at the Beaux-Arts, and Pascal Dagnan-Bouveret. Enjolras painted mainly landscapes in his early career; later it became evident that his love was for painting women.  He changed genres, focusing mainly on the portraiture of elegant young women by either lamplight or black lighting. He would become an excellent painter of nudes, and many of his later works, such as "La Sieste" are of an erotic and sensual nature.


    From 1890 and onwards, Enjolras exhibited his works at the Paris Salon, joining the Société des Artistes Français in 1901. Also, the Musée du Puy and Musée d'Avignon both have collections of his works.


  • John Joseph Enneking

    (1841-1916) was an American Impressionist born of German ancestry in Minster, Ohio on October 4, 1841.


    He was educated at Mount St. Mary's College, Cincinnati, served in the American Civil War in 1861-1862, studied art in New York and Boston, and gave it up because his eyes were weak, only to return to it after failing in the manufacture of tinware.


    From 1873 to 1876, he studied in Münich under Schleich and Leier, and in Paris under Daubigny and Bonnat; and in 1878-1879 he studied in Paris again and sketched in the Netherlands. Enneking is a plein air painter, and his favorite subject is the November twilight of New England, and more generally the half lights of early spring, late autumn, and winter dawn and evening.


    The Enneking Parkway in Hyde Park, Massachusetts is named after resident John Joseph Enneking.


  • Able Fairre
  • Hiram Peabody Flagg

    (1859-1937) was an American painter who focused on landscape, marine, and historical genres in oil and watercolor.

  • Clemens Frankel


  • Charles Edward Frere


  • Eugene Samuel Auguste Fromentin

    (1820-1876) was one of the great Orientalists of France. He was also a prolific writer and art historian. He was born in La Rochelle, and initially went to Paris to study law, where he succeeded in passing his law exams. He always had a desire to be an artist, and he eventually managed to persuade his Father to allow him to train under the classical landscapist Remond. After a time, Fromentin changed his mind, and decided to continue his studies under the more naturalistic painter, Cabat.


    In 1846, Fromentin made a secret trip to Algeria with Charles Labbe, who was also to become an Orientalist painter. The following year two Orientalist paintings inspired by this trip were accepted by the Salon. The favorable reception at the Salon encouraged Fromentin to return to Algeria. On his return to Paris he exhibited eleven Orientalist paintings in the Salon, and thus his reputation as an Orientalist painter was firmly established.


    The Arab cavalier was a favorite subject matter of Fromentin, and his first Oriental works are divided between Arabs astride camels, and those mounted on horseback. He married in 1852, and after his honeymoon he returned to Algeria .This is said to have been one of his most successful trips as it resulted in two books, and also a store of sketches, and visual images that he was to draw on for the rest of his life.


    Fromentin's most successful Salon was that of 1859, when he gained a First Class medal as well as the Legion of Honneur. He also received praise from progressive critics such as Baudelaire, and a young Degas. In 1861, an Oriental painting of his, exhibited at the Salon was purchased by the French State. In the Salon of 1864 a painting entitled, "Windstorm on the Esparto Plains of the Sahara," was picked out by a well known art critic of the time as being, "one of the best pictures of the exhibition."


    In 1869, Fromentin formed part of a delegation of artists invited on a three month long trip to Egypt to witness the opening of the Suez Canal. Other members of the delegation included the painters Bonnat, Berchere, and Gerome, as well as the writer Theophile Gautier. Fromentin used this trip as an opportunity to paint, and also to write. A painting produced during this trip, entitled, "Dahabiyyah on the Nile at Luxor," now hangs in the Art Institute of Chicago.'


    In the same year as his trip to Egypt, Fromentin also produced a painting which now hangs in the Musee d'Orsay showing a convoy of men travelling through the desert decimated by the desert heat, and entitled, 'Land of Thirst.'


    During the 1870s, Fromentin became particularly interested in the Dutch, and Flemish Masters. He believed that their talent was very much undervalued in France. In the year of his death he published an eloquent study of Dutch and Flemish art entitled, "Les Maitres d'autre fois."


  • Jacob Emanual Gaisser


  • Eduardo Leon Garrido

    (1856-1906) was a painter who specialized in portraying the elegant ladies of the era of the Belle Epoque.  He lived and worked in Paris and exhibited on a regular basis at the Paris Salon as well as in Munich and Madrid.

    © 2013 Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York / ADAGP, Paris

  • Leon Gaspard

    (1882-1964) was an interesting addition to the New Mexico arts scene when he arrived there in 1918.  A Russian-born, French-trained veteran of the airborne campaigns of the Great War, he arrived physically diminished from a horrific plane crash that had put him in a French hospital for two years.  Seeking a more hospitable climate, he arrived in Taos to find a vibrant arts community and an exotic blend of native, western and Hispanic cultures.


    Having traveled widely throughout Russia, China, Mongolia, Tibet, Morocco and Northern Africa as a fur trader, successful painter, army pilot and international spy, Gaspard had a love of foreign cultures and a desire to document them artistically. Taos allowed him just such an opportunity, and he set out to paint the Taos Indians in much the same way he had painted the natives of North Africa and Asia while in Paris.


  • Baron Francois Gerad

    (1770-1837)  Raised in Rome, Neoclassical painter François Gérard acquired a love of Italian painting that informed his art for life. Returning to Paris around 1782, he studied under such artists as sculptor Augustin Pajou and painter Jacques-Louis David, who hired him as assistant in 1791.


    By 1793, with both parents dead and taking full responsibility for his youngest brother, Gérard earned a living by illustrating folio editions of literature. Miniature painter Jean-Baptiste Isabey helped him repeatedly, most importantly by commissioning a portrait that launched Gérard's reputation as a society portraitist in 1796. Praised for their naturalism and brilliant characterizations, Gérard's portraits gained Napoleon's attention and court favor rivaling even David. For historical and mythological subjects, Gérard based his style on David's Neoclassicism but infused it with a dreamlike quality.


    Politically flexible, Gérard was honored by all of the vastly differing regimes following the French Revolution of 1789, including being made a baron by Louis XVIII. Years later, a critic's enthusiasm remained typical: "What matter that he is first painter to the king? He is the king of first painters."


  • Belisario Gioja

    (1829-1906) was the father of a popular Italian landscape painter Edoardo Gioja, was born in 1829 and died in Rome in 1906.  He was known as genre painter and watercolorist.

  • Emile Grau-Sala

    (1911-1975) who was born in Barcelona in 1911, and who died in Paris in 1975, was a Catalan [Spanish] painter who studied at the Art Academy of Barcelona, and then moved to Paris in 1932. Grau-Sala was perhaps best known as a colorist in oil, watercolor and pastel as well as an illustrator. His works are fresh in color and freely drawn or constructed. In the French Salon “Comparaisons,” he was a member of the group affiliated with Maurice Boitel, a painter in the art movement known as “La Jeune Peinture” of the School of Paris, associated with Bernard Buffet, Yves Brayer, Paul Collopmb, Daniel du Janerand and others.

  • Emile A. Gruppe

    (1896 - 1978) was born in Rochester New York to Helen and Charles P. Gruppe. He lived the early years of his life in the Netherlands as his father Charles Paulo Gruppe, painted with The Hague School of Art and acted as a dealer for the Dutch painters in the US. The family returned permanently to the states around 1913 when rumblings of World War I were brewing.  All of Emile’s siblings established themselves in the arts. His oldest brother Paulo played the cello, his other brother Karl became a sculptor and his younger sister Virginia a watercolorist.


    In the early 1930’s Emile found his way to the fishing town of Gloucester, Mass., and to the area known as Rocky Neck, one of the oldest artist communities in the U.S. Here he established his home and The Gloucester School of Painting (1940 – 1970) in an old school house with his mentor John Fabian Carlson. Later, the village of Cambridge and town of Jeffersonville, Vt., with their surrounding mountains became a second campus for his students. And still later, as he grew older, the warm breezes and good fishing of Naples Florida provided another palette for his landscapes.


  • Francesco Guardi

    (1712 – 1793) was a Venetian painter of veduta, a member of the Venetian School. He is considered to be among the last practitioners, along with his brothers, of the classic Venetian school of painting.


    Francesco Guardi was born in Venice into a family of lesser nobility from Trentino. His father Domenico (born in 1678) and his brothers Niccolò and Gian Antonio were also painters, the latter inheriting the family workshop after the father's death in 1716. They probably all contributed as a team to some of the larger commissions later attributed to Francesco. His sister Maria Cecilia married the pre-eminent Veneto-European painter of his epoch, Giovanni Battista Tiepolo.


    In 1735, Guardi moved to the workshop of Michele Marieschi, where he remained until 1743. His first certain works is from 1738, for a parish at Vigo d'Anuania, in Trentino. In this period he worked alongside his older brother, Gian Antonio. The first work signed by Francesco is a Saint Adoring the Eucarist (circa 1739).


    His works in this period included landscapes as well as figure representations. His early vedutas show influence both from Canaletto and Luca Carlevarijs. On February 15, 1757 he married Maria Mattea Pagani, the daughter of painter Matteo Pagani. In the same year his brother Gian Antonio died and his first son, Vincenzo, was born. His second son, Giacomo, was born in 1764.


    In 1763 he worked in Murano, in the church of San Pietro Martire, finishing a “Miracle of a Dominican Saint” clearly influenced by Alessandro Magnasco in its quasi-expressionistic style.

    Francesco Guardi's most important later works include the “Doge's Feasts,” a series of twelve canvases celebrating the ceremonies held in 1763 for the election of Doge Alvise IV Mocenigo. In his later years, Canaletto's influence on his art diminished, as showed by the “Piazzetta” in the Ca' d'Oro of Venice. In circa 1778, he painted the severe “Holy Trinity Appearing to Sts. Peter and Paul” in the parish church of Roncegno.


    In 1782 Guardi was commissioned by the Venetian government six canvases to celebrate the visit of the Russian Archdukes in the city, of which only two remain, and two others for that of Pope Pius VI. On Sept. 12 of that year he was admitted to the Fine Art Academy of Venice.


    A stronger attention to colors is present in late works such as the “Concerto of 80 Orphans” of 1782, now in Munich, in the “Façade of Palace with Staircase” in the Accademia Carrara of Bergamo.


    Guardi died at Venice in 1793.


  • William Glackens

    (1870 – 1938) was an American realist painter and one of the founders of the Ashcan school of American art. He is also known for his work in helping Albert C. Barnes to acquire the European paintings that form the nucleus of the famed Barnes Foundation in Philadelphia.  His dark-hued, vibrantly painted street scenes and depictions of daily life in pre-WWI New York first established his reputation as a major artist. His later work was brighter in tone and showed the influence of Renoir. During much of his career as a painter, Glackens also worked as an illustrator for newspapers and magazines in Philadelphia and New York City.

  • Neopolitan Gouache
  • Henry Harpignies

    (1819 – 1916) was a French landscape painter of the Barbizon school.  He was born at Valenciennes. His parents intended for him to pursue a business career, but his determination to become an artist was so strong that it conquered all obstacles, and he was allowed at the age of twenty-seven to enter Jean Achard's atelier in Paris. From this painter he acquired a ground work of sound constructive draughtsmanship, which is so marked a feature of his landscape painting. After two years under this exacting teacher he went to Italy, whence he returned in 1850.


    During the next few years he devoted himself to the painting of children in landscape setting, and fell in with Corot and the other Barbizon masters, whose principles and methods are to a certain extent reflected in his own personal art. To Corot he was united by a bond of warm friendship, and the two artists went together to Italy in 1860.


    On his return, he scored his first great success at the Salon, in 1861, with his Lisière de bois sur les bords de l'Allier. After that year he was a regular exhibitor at the old Salon; in 1886 he received his first medal for Le Soir dans la campagne de Rome, which was acquired for the Luxembourg Gallery.


    Many of his best works were painted at Hérisson in the central France region of Bourbonnais, as well as in the Nivernais and Auvergne regions.  Among his chief pictures are: Soir sur les bords de la Loire (1861), Les Corbeaux (1865), Le Soir (1866), Le Saut-du-Loup (1873), La Loire (1882), and Vue de Saint-Privé (1883).


    He also did some decorative work for the Paris Opéra—the Vallée d'Egérie panel, which he showed at the Salon of 1870.


    He had numerous students, among them Émile Appay (1876–1935), Jeanne Rongier, Jane Le Soudier (1885–1976), Louis-Alexandre Cabié, Pierre Vignal, Raymond Verdun, and Émile Dardoize (1826–1901)


  • William M. Hart

    (March 31, 1823 – June 17, 1894) was a Scottish-born American landscape and cattle painter, and Hudson River School artist. His younger brother, James McDougal Hart, was also a Hudson River School artist, and the two painted similar subjects. He studied under Jules-Joseph Lefebvre.


    Hart was born in Paisley, Scotland, and was taken to America in early youth by his family. He was apprenticed to a carriage painter at Albany, New York, and his first artistic experience was in decorating the panels of coaches with landscapes. He also spent time as a portrait painter. He returned to Scotland, probably in the early or mid-1840s, where he studied for three years.

    By the time he returned to America, Hart had shifted his energy to landscape painting. He exhibited his first work at the National Academy of Design in 1848, became a full member in 1858, and continued to show his paintings there regularly through the mid-1870s. He also exhibited at the Brooklyn Art Association and at major exhibitions around the country. Hart was a member of the American Watercolor Society, and was its president from 1870 to 1873.

    Like most of the major American landscape artists of the time, Hart settled in New York City, where he opened a studio in the Tenth Street Studio building in 1858. His mature landscape style embraced the mannerism of the late Hudson River School by emphasizing light and atmosphere. He became particularly adept at depicting angled sunlight and foreground shadow; the best examples of this are: Seashore Morning(1866) in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York; After the Storm (1860s) in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston; The Last Gleam (1865) in the High Museum of Art in Atlanta, Georgia; Sunset in the Valley (1870) in a private collection; and A Quiet Nook (1885) in the Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington D.C.

    As strong as Hart's technical abilities were, he is also known for his prolific and occasionally formulaic paintings of cows. Cattle were a popular motif in Hudson River School art, and nearly every artist included them in at least some of their landscapes as diminutive symbols of man's harmonious relationship with nature.

    The Albany Institute of History & Art has in its collection over 400 sketches, water colors, and sketch books which were retained en masse from the artist's studio after his death, by the family of the subsequent donor. Since each piece is signed, dated, and noted with the location of its subject, many previously unsigned and unattributed paintings are now being associated with the artist.


    Hart died at Mount Vernon, New York, on June 17, 1894. His daughter Jessie Hart White was the mother of E. B. White.


  • George Kenneth Hartwell

    (1891-1949) Printmaker, painter and illustrator, George Kenneth Hartwell was born in Fitchberg, Massachusetts. He studied at the Art Students' League in New York City under Kenneth Hayes Miller, Edward Hopper and George Bellows. His work was exhibited at the Art Institute of Chicago (1923), the Society of Independent Artists (1923), Salons of America (1928 and 1934), Library of Congress (1944-46), the Laguna Beach Art Association (1945 and 1946) and the Carnegie Institute (1945).  For many years Hartwell worked as an illustrator for Century, Scribners and Theatre Arts. He was also a member of the United Scenic Artists. His work is included in the permanent collections of the Library of Congress, the Brooklyn Museum, the Philadelphia Museum of Art, and the Toronto Museum of Fine Arts.

  • Arthur Merton Hazard

    (1872 - 1930) Arthur Merton Hazard was born in Bridgewater, Mass., on Oct. 20th, 1872.  He was a member of Boston's vibrant and notable community of artists, 'The Boston School," a group led by Edmund Tarbell and included Joseph De Camp, Frank Benson and William M. Paxton.  Hazard studied with Frank Duveneck in Ohio and went to Paris with DeCamp to study at the atelier of Henri Blanc.  Early portraits of society women in naturally lit interiors were foundations of Boston's artistic reputation; Hazard painted several of these notable works.  His color and contrast distinguished Hazard's work and suited him well after he moved to the warmth of Los Angeles in 1923 to a more hospitable climate for his failing health.  It wasn't long before he was painting California legends Charles M. Russell and Douglas Fairbanks to name only two.  There were early connections to California as he exhibited there in 1913. In Boston, he was a member of St. Botolph Club and the Copley Society, and the early Boston art students association. 

  • Carl Herpfer

    (1836-1897) was born in Dinkelsbühl, Nov. 30, 1836 and died in Munich, June 18, 1897. He is considered a genre and portrait painter from the German school.  Herpfer received his formal education at the Beaux Arts Academy in Munich under Professor A. von Ramberg.


    Although Carl Herpfer traveled to France to study, he never exhibited in the Paris Salons. He exhibited exclusively in Munich from 1868 to 1888. Works by Carl Herpfer are highly regarded by collectors in Munich


    Like his contemporaries, Herpfer executed a variety of costume pieces of the bourgeoisie enjoying the arts. His pictures often include many incidental details. Similar scenes are portrayed by Regiannini, Andreotti, or Joseph Frederic Charles Soulacroix.


  • Daniel Hernandez
  • Robert Henri

    (1865 – 1929) was an American painter and teacher. He was a leading figure of the Ashcan School in art.


    In 1886, Henri enrolled at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts in Philadelphia, where he studied under Thomas Anshutz, a protege of Thomas Eakins.  In 1888, he traveled to Paris to study at the Académie Julian, where he studied under William-Adolphe Bouguereau and embraced Impressionism. With time, he was admitted into the École des Beaux Arts. He visited Brittany and Italy during this period.


    By the end of 1891, he returned to Philadelphia, studying under Robert Vonnoh at the Academy. In 1892, he began teaching at the Philadelphia School of Design for Women.

    In Philadelphia, Henri began to attract a group of followers who met in his studio to discuss art and culture, including several illustrators for the Philadelphia Press newspaper who would become known as the 'Philadelphia Four': William Glackens, George Luks, Everett Shinn, and John French Sloan. The gatherings became known as the Charcoal Club, featuring life drawing and readings in the social philosophy of Ralph Waldo Emerson, Walt Whitman, Émile Zola, and Henry David Thoreau. By 1895, Henri had come to reconsider Impressionism, calling it a "new academicism."


    For several years, he divided his time between Philadelphia and Paris, where he met the Canadian artist James Wilson Morrice. Morrice introduced Henri to the practice of painting pochades on tiny wood panels that could be carried in a coat pocket along with a minimal kit of brushes and oil. This facilitated the kind of spontaneous depictions of urban scenes which would come to be associated with his mature style.


    In 1898, he married Linda Craige, a student from his private art class. The couple spent the next two years on an extended honeymoon in France, during which time Henri prepared canvases to submit to the Salon. In 1899, he exhibited "Woman in Manteau" and La Neige ("The Snow"), which was purchased by the French government for display in the Musée du Luxembourg.


    He began teaching at the New York School of Art in 1902, where his students included Joseph Stella, Edward Hopper, Rockwell Kent, George Bellows, Norman Raeben, Louis D. Fancher, and Stuart Davis. In 1905, Henri's wife, Linda, long in poor health, died.

    In 1906, he was elected to the National Academy of Design, but when painters in his circle were rejected for the Academy's 1907 exhibition, he accused fellow jurors of bias and walked off the jury, resolving to organize a show of his own. He would later refer to the Academy as "a cemetery of art."


    In February 1908, Henri organized a landmark show entitled "The Eight" (after the eight painters displaying their works) at the Macbeth Gallery in New York. Besides his own works and those produced by the "Philadelphia Four" (who had followed Henri to New York by this time), there were paintings by Maurice Prendergast, Ernest Lawson, and Arthur B. Davies. These painters and this exhibition would become associated with the Ashcan School, although the content of the show was diverse and that term was not coined until 1934. Henri was at the heart of the group who led the depiction of the tough, exuberant city. Having spurned academic painting and Impressionism as an art of mere surfaces, Henri wanted art to be akin to journalism, and, 'for paint to be as real as mud, as the clods of manure and snow that froze on Broadway in the winter.'


    In May 1908, he married 22-year-old Irish-born Marjorie Organ.


    Henri admired anarchist and Mother Earth publisher Emma Goldman, and taught from 1911 at the Modern School. Goldman, who later sat for a portrait by Henri, described him as "an anarchist in his conception of art and its relation to life.”


    From 1915 to 1927 he was a popular and influential teacher at the Art Students League of New York. His ideas on art were collected by former pupil Margery Ryerson and published as The Art Spirit (Philadelphia, 1923). Henri's other students include George Bellows, Arnold Franz Brasz, Stuart Davis, Edward Hopper, Rockwell Kent, Henry Ives Cobb, Jr., Lillian Cotton, and Yasuo Kuniyoshi. During the summers of 1916, 1917, and 1922 he went to Santa Fe, N.M. to paint. He became an influential figure in the Santa Fe art scene, and persuaded the director of the state art museum to adopt an open-door policy.


    In the spring of 1929 Henri was chosen as one of the top three living American artists by the Arts Council of New York. Henri died of cancer in the summer of 1929. He was honored with a memorial exhibition at The Metropolitan Museum of Art in 1931.


  • J. F. Herring Sr & Thomas Brooks

    J. F. Herring, Sr. (1795 – 1865), also known as John Frederick Herring I, was a painter, sign maker and coachman in Victorian England.  John F. Herring, Sr. is the painter of the 1848 "Pharoah's Chariot Horses." He amended his signature "SR" (senior) in 1836, with the growing fame of his teenage son (first of four) John Frederick Herring, Jr.


    Herring, born in London in 1795, was the son of a London merchant of Dutch parentage, who had been born overseas in America. The first eighteen years of Herring's life were spent in London, England, where his greatest interests were drawing and horses.  In the year 1814, at the age of 18, he moved to Doncaster in the north of England, arriving in time to witness the Duke of Hamilton's "William" win the St. Leger Stakes horserace. By 1815, Herring had married Ann Harris; his sons John Frederick Herring, Jr., Charles Herring, and Benjamin Herring were all to become artists, while his two daughters, Ann and Emma, both married painters. When she was barely of age in 1845 Ann married Harrison Weir.


    In Doncaster, England, Herring was employed as a painter of inn signs and coach insignia on the sides of coaches, and his later contact with a firm owned by a Mr. Wood led to Herring's subsequent employment as a night coach driver. Herring spent his spare time painting portraits of horses for inn parlors, and he became known as the "artist coachman.” Herring's talent was recognized by wealthy customers, and he began painting hunters and racehorses for the gentry.


    In 1830, John Frederick Herring, Sr. left Doncaster for Newmarket, England, where he spent three years before moving to London, England. During this time, Herring might have received tuition from Abraham Cooper. In London, Herring experienced financial difficulties and was given financial assistance by W. T. Copeland, who commissioned many paintings, including some designs used for the Copeland Spode bone china. In 1840-1841, Herring visited Paris, painting several pictures, on the invitation of the Duc d’Orleans (the Duke of Orleans), son of the French King Louis-Phillipe.


    In 1845, Herring was appointed Animal Painter to HRH the Duchess of Kent, followed by a subsequent commission from the ruling Queen Victoria, who remained a patron for the rest of his life.


    In 1853, Herring moved to rural Kent in the southeast of England and stopped painting horse portraits. He spent the last 12 years of his life at Meopham Park near Tonbridge, where he lived as a country squire. He then broadened his subject matter by painting agricultural scenes and narrative pictures, as well as his better known sporting works of hunting, racing and shooting.


    A highly successful and prolific artist, Herring ranks along with Sir Edwin Landseer as one of the more eminent animal painters of mid-nineteenth (19th) century Europe. The paintings of Herring were very popular, and many were engraved, including his 33 winners of the St. Leger and his 21 winners of the Derby. Herring exhibited at the Royal Academy from 1818–1865, at the British Institution from 1830–1865, and at the Society of British Artists in 1836-1852, where Herring became Vice-President in 1842.


    Thomas Brooks (1608–1680) was an English non-conformist Puritan preacher and author. Much of what is known about Thomas Brooks has been ascertained from his writings. Born, likely to well-to-do parents, in 1608, Brooks entered Emmanuel College, Cambridge in 1625, where he was preceded by such men as Thomas Hooker, John Cotton, and Thomas Shepard. He was licensed as a preacher of the Gospel by 1640. Before that date, he appears to have spent a number of years at sea, probably as a chaplain with the fleet.


    After the conclusion of the First English Civil War, Thomas Brooks became minister at Thomas Apostle's, London, and was sufficiently renowned to be chosen as preacher before the House of Commons on Dec. 26, 1648. His sermon was afterwards published under the title, 'God's Delight in the Progress of the Upright,' the text being Psalm 44:18: 'Our heart is not turned back, neither have our steps declined from Thy way'. Three or four years afterwards, he transferred to St. Margaret's, Fish-street Hill, London.


    In 1662, he fell victim to the notorious Act of Uniformity, but he appears to have remained in his parish and to have preached as opportunity arose. Treatises continued to flow from his pen.


  • Thomas Hicks

    (1823-1890) One of the finest portrait painters working in New York City during the second half of the nineteenth century, Thomas Hicks attracted a steady clientele that included some of the most celebrated figures in the fields of business, politics, education and the arts. Employing an academic realist style that reflected his cosmopolitan training, he also painted genre scenes and figure subjects.  His oeuvre also includes landscape views painted in Europe and the United States, as well as the occasional still life.


    Hicks was born on Oct. 18th 1823 in Newtown, Buck’s County, Pennsylvania, the seventh of nine children of Quaker parents, Joseph and Jane (Bond) Hicks, whose descendants arrived in America on the Mayflower.  He began drawing as a child, developing a particular talent for making caricatures.  Around 1836 he began an apprenticeship as a coach and sign painter to his father’s cousin, the Quaker preacher and primitive artist Edward Hicks, who went on to win fame for his Peaceable Kingdom paintings.  Early on in his apprenticeship, Hicks painted a portrait of his employer that demonstrated such a command of technique that his father decided he could pursue a career as a fine artist.  Hicks went on to study at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts in Philadelphia (1837) and the National Academy of Design in New York (1838).  By the early 1840s, he had achieved considerable success in his chosen field; indeed, many of his oils were purchased by the American Art Union, and on the basis of his Death of Abel, exhibited at the National Academy’s annual exhibition in 1841, he was elected an associate member of that august institution.  Hicks went on to become a full-fledged academician a decade later.


    Like other artists of his generation, Hicks felt the need to refine his skills through travel and study in Europe.  In 1845, he went abroad, copying the work of Old Masters in the galleries and museums of Paris, London and Florence.  He also spent time in the American art colony in Rome, fraternizing with the likes of Benjamin Champney and Jasper F. Cropsey, as well as John Frederick Kensett, with whom he shared a studio.  In 1848, he returned to Paris, where he studied with Thomas Couture, an influential history and portrait painter whose studio attracted many Americans.  Inspired by his teacher’s “breadth of style and powerful appreciation of humanity,” Hicks evolved a straightforward realist approach that served him well in the years to come.


    Returning to the United States in the autumn of 1849, Hicks established his studio in New York.  He went on to become one of the city’s leading portraitists, painting likenesses of such celebrities as Henry Ward Beecher, Harriet Beecher Stowe, William Cullen Bryant, Charles Dickens, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, Edwin Booth and Abraham Lincoln; the latter portrait, painted in the wake of Lincoln’s nomination for the presidency, was so well-received that it was reproduced as a lithograph and through this means disseminated to a wide audience.  Hicks also executed many mayoral and gubernatorial portraits, including a portrait of Hamilton Fish (Art Commission of the City of New York).  Admired for his use of informal poses, his skillful handling of light and dark, and his ability to capture individual character (all of which reflected his contact with Couture), he would typically surround his sitters with accoutrements and symbols that alluded to their professional accomplishments and personal interests; in the words of one contemporary commentator, “He  . . . catches a likeness with facility, and often indulges in warmth of coloring and elaborate accessories which have contributed to the popularity of his portraits.”


    Hicks exhibited his work regularly at the annuals of the National Academy of Design, the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, the Boston Athenaeum and the Brooklyn Art Association.  He also belonged to the Artists’ Fund Society, serving as president of that organization from 1873 to 1885.  In 1858 he was among a group of fifteen painters—among them James A. Suydam, Louis Mignot and the aforementioned Kensett—commissioned to paint views of the scenic train route from Baltimore to Wheeling, West Virginia. Interestingly, Hicks survived a major accident in Norwalk, Connecticut in May of 1853, when several cars of the train he was riding in plunged into a river.


    Hicks died on Oct. 8th 1890 at his country house, “Thornwood,” in Trenton Falls, New York. 


    ©The essay herein is the property of Spanierman Gallery LLC and is copyrighted by Spanierman Gallery LLC, and may not be reproduced in whole or in part without written permission from Spanierman Gallery LLC nor shown or communicated to anyone without due credit being given to Spanierman Gallery LLC.

  • Emil Hildebrand
  • Winslow Homer

    (February 24, 1836 – September 29, 1910) was an American landscape painter and printmaker, best known for his marine subjects. He is considered one of the foremost painters in 19th-century America and a preeminent figure in American art.


    Largely self-taught, Homer began his career working as a commercial illustrator.  He subsequently took up oil painting and produced major studio works characterized by the weight and density he exploited from the medium. He also worked extensively in watercolor, creating a fluid and prolific oeuvre, primarily chronicling his working vacations.


    Born in Boston, Massachusetts in 1836, Homer was the second of three sons of Charles Savage Homer and Henrietta Benson Homer, both from long lines of New Englanders. His mother was a gifted amateur watercolorist and Homer's first teacher, and she and her son had a close relationship throughout their lives. Homer took on many of her traits, including her quiet, strong-willed, terse, sociable nature; her dry sense of humor; and her artistic talent. 


    After Homer's high school graduation, his father saw a newspaper advertisement and arranged for an apprenticeship. Homer's apprenticeship at the age of 19 to J. H. Bufford, a Boston commercial lithographer, was a formative but "treadmill experience".  By 1857, his freelance career was underway after he turned down an offer to join the staff of Harper's Weekly. 


    His early works, mostly commercial engravings of urban and country social scenes, are characterized by clean outlines, simplified forms, dramatic contrast of light and dark, and lively figure groupings — qualities that remained important throughout his career.  His quick success was mostly due to this strong understanding of graphic design and also to the adaptability of his designs to wood engraving.


    In 1859, he opened a studio in the Tenth Street Studio Building in New York City. Until 1863, he attended classes at the National Academy of Design, and studied briefly with Frédéric Rondel, who taught him the basics of painting.  His mother tried to raise family funds to send him to Europe for further study but instead Harper's sent Homer to the front lines of the American Civil War (1861–1865), where he sketched battle scenes and camp life, the quiet moments as well as the chaotic ones. 


    Although the drawings did not get much attention at the time, they mark Homer's expanding skills from illustrator to painter. Like with his urban scenes, Homer also illustrated women during war time, and showed the effects of the war on the home front.


    Back at his studio, however, Homer would regain his strength and re-focus his artistic vision. He set to work on a series of war-related paintings based on his sketches, among them Sharpshooter on Picket Duty (1862), Home, Sweet Home (1863), and Prisoners from the Front (1866).  During this time, he also continued to sell his illustrations to periodicals such as Our Young Folks and Frank Leslie's Chimney Corner.


    After the war, Homer turned his attention primarily to scenes of childhood and young women, reflecting nostalgia for simpler times, both his own and the nation as a whole. His Crossing the Pasture (1871–1872) depicts two boys who idealize brotherhood with the hope of a united future after the war that pitted brother against brother. 


    At nearly the beginning of his painting career, the twenty-seven-year-old Homer demonstrated a maturity of feeling, depth of perception, and mastery of technique which was immediately recognized. His realism was objective, true to nature, and emotionally controlled.


    During the mid-1880s, Homer painted his monumental sea scenes. In Undertow (1886), depicting the dramatic rescue of two female bathers by two male lifeguards, Homer's figures "have the weight and authority of classical figures".  Other notable paintings among these dramatic struggle-with-nature images are Banks Fisherman, The Gulf Stream, Rum Cay, Mending the Nets, and Searchlight, Harbor Entrance, Santiago de Cuba. Some of these he repeated as etchings.


    At fifty years of age, Homer had become a "Yankee Robinson Crusoe, cloistered on his art island" and "a hermit with a brush". These paintings established Homer, as the New York Evening Post wrote, "in a place by himself as the most original and one of the strongest of American painters."


    In 1962, the U.S. Post Office released a commemorative stamp honoring Winslow Homer. Homer's famous oil painting "Breezing Up," now hanging in the National Gallery in Washington DC, was chosen as the image for the design of this issue.  On August 12, 2010, The Postal Service issued a 44-cent commemorative stamp featuring Homer's "Boys in a Pasture" at the APS Stamp Show in Richmond, Virginia. This stamp was the ninth to be issued in a series entitled "American Treasures." The original painting is part of the Hayden Collection at the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston.


  • Robert Hubert

    (1733 – 1808) was a French painter, noted for his landscape paintings and picturesque depictions of ruins.


    The quantity of his work is immense; the Louvre alone contains nine paintings by his hand and specimens are frequently to be met with in provincial museums and private collections. Robert's work has more or less of that scenic character which justified his selection by Voltaire to paint the decorations of his theatre at Ferney.


    His work was much engraved by the abbé de Saint-Non, with whom he had visited Naples in the company of Fragonard during his early days; in Italy his work has also been frequently reproduced by Chatelain, Linard, Le Veau, and others.


    He deserves to be remembered not so much for his skill as a painter, but as for the liveliness and point with which he treated the subjects he painted. Along with this incessant activity as an artist, his daring character and many adventures attracted general admiration and sympathy. In the fourth canto of his L'Imagination Jacques Delille celebrated Robert's miraculous escape when lost in the catacombs.


  • Hudson River School

     The Hudson River School was a mid-19th century American art movement embodied by a group of landscape painters whose aesthetic vision was influenced by romanticism. The paintings for which the movement is named depict the Hudson River Valley and the surrounding area, including the Catskill, Adirondack, and the White Mountains; eventually works by the second generation of artists associated with the school expanded to include other locales.

  • Thomas Hudson

    (1701-1779) was an English portrait painter. Hudson was born in Devon in 1701. His exact birthplace is unknown. He studied under Jonathan Richardson in London and against his wishes, married Richardson's daughter at some point before 1725.


    Hudson was most prolific between 1740 and 1760 and, from 1745 until 1755 was the most successful London portraitist.


    He had many assistants, and employed the specialist drapery painter Joseph Van Aken.  Joshua Reynolds, Joseph Wright and the drapery painter Peter Toms were his students.

    Hudson visited the Low Countries in 1748 and Italy in 1752. In 1753 he bought a house at Cross Deep, Twickenham, just upstream from Pope’s Villa. He retired toward the end of the 1750s, dying at Twickenham in 1779. His extensive private art collection was sold off in three separate sales.


    Many of Hudson's works may be seen art galleries throughout the United Kingdom. They include the National Portrait Gallery, the National Maritime Museum, Tate, Foundling Museum and the Bristol City Museum and Art Gallery


  • Abraham Hulk Jr.

    (1851-1922) was an English painter specializing in landscapes.  Hulk was born in the Netherlands in 1851 to renowned Dutch marine painter Abraham Hulk Sr. (1813-1897). Although Hulk spent the majority of his life in England, he made frequent trips back to the Netherlands and was well regarded in both countries. While in England, he painted extensively in the region of Dorking, Surrey and Nottingham. He was best known for his Dutch and Southern England landscapes which he painted in both watercolors and oils. He flourished as an artist between 1876 and 1892, during which time he gained renown and participated in important exhibitions at the Royal Academy and the Royal Society of British Artists. During his lifetime, he showed twenty-four works at the Royal Academy, as well as exhibited fifteen times at the annual exhibition of the Royal Society of British Artists. Hulk lived for many years in Nottingham where he died in 1922.

  • Charles Hunt, Jr.

    (1829-1900) He was the son of artist, Charles Hunt (1803-1877) and he was exposed to the world of art as seen through his father’s eyes; he learned a lot about the genre style from Charles Sr. who frequently exhibited in private galleries until 1846, but it was not until Charles Sr. was about sixty that he presented his paintings to the Royal Academy of London; during his later years, the senior British artist painted humorous themes involving children performing in various play scenes such as police court or renditions of Shakespeare.


    From a rich artistic heritage derived through his father, Charles Jr. also began to paint genre scenes in a classical, traditional mode using realistic detailing and expressionism.


    Charles Hunt Jr.’s warm earth tones were often enhanced with occasional splotches of bold color.


  • Jan Baptist Huysmans


  • Charles Emile Jaque

    (1813 – 1894) was a French painter of animals (animalier) and engraver who was, with Jean-François Millet, part of the Barbizon School. He first learned to engrave maps when he spent seven years in the French Army.


    Fleeing the Cholera epidemics that besieged Paris in the mid-nineteenth century, Jacque relocated to Barbizon in 1849 with Millet. There, he painted rustic or pastoral subject matter: shepherds, flocks of sheep, pigs, and scenes of farm life. In addition to painting, Jacque was also famous for his etchings and engravings. He, along with Felix Bracquemond and Felix Buhot, is credited with the nineteenth-century revival of seventeenth-century techniques. He began his career as an engraver around 1841 by publishing a series of etchings with Louis Marvy. He followed this work with a series of engravings based on the works of Adriaen van Ostade, after which he began to create original engravings / artworks. Charles Baudelairesaid of him, "Mr. Jacque’s new reputation will continue to grow always, we hope. His etchings are very bold and his subject matter is well conceived. All that Mr. Jacque does on copper is filled with a freedom and a frankness which reminds one of the Old Masters."


    Henri Béraldi distinguished two periods in Jacque’s career. The first saw his creation of more spontaneous, Dutch inspired vignettes. In the second, for which he is more famous, he produced larger plates which, according to Fanica, were "marked by the Dutch character of his work."


    Jacque also provided the illustrations for numerous books, in particular the Vicar of Wakefield by Oliver Goldsmith; The Indian Cottage, a novella published with Paul et Virginie; Picturesque Greece by Christopher Wordsworth; the Works of Shakespeare; and Ancient and Modern Versailles by Alexandre de Laborde.




  • Gustave Jean Jacquet

    (1846-1909) was born on May 25, 1846 in Paris. He was a pupil of Bouguereau and for his debut at the Paris Salon in 1865 he exhibited 'The Reverie' which was very much in his master's style. He received a third class medal in 1868 with his painting 'Army Outing in the 16th Century'. In 1875 Jacquet won a first class medal and he was decorated with the Legion d'Honneur in 1879. Jacquet died in Paris in 1909.


    During the 19th century, particularly in France, people developed a vivid fascination with the past and paintings of the bygone eras were in demand. Jacquet specialized in painting nudes, portraits and genre subjects in which he evoked the elegance of the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries.


    These works were exquisitely painted with every attention paid to detail; his use of color is rich and vibrant and his rendition of luxurious cloth is outstanding.


  • Eastman N.A. Johnson - Attributed

    (1824 – 1906) was an American painter, and co-founder of the Metropolitan Museum of Art , New York City, with his name inscribed at its entrance. Best known for his genre paintings, paintings of scenes from everyday life, and his portraits both of everyday people, he also painted portraits of prominent Americans such as Abraham Lincoln, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Ralph Waldo Emerson, and Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. His later works often show the influence of the 17th-century Dutch masters whom he studied while living in The Hague, and he was even known as The American Rembrandt in his day.


    Johnson's style is largely realistic in both subject matter and in execution. His charcoal sketches were not strongly influenced by period artists, but are informed more by his lithography training. Later works show influence by the 17th century Dutch and Flemish masters, and also by Jean François Millet. Echoes of Millet's The Gleaners can be seen in Johnson's The Cranberry Harvest, Island of Nantucket although the emotional tone of the work is far different.


    His careful portrayal of individuals rather than stereotypes enhances the realism of his paintings. Ojibwe artist Carl Gawboy notes that the faces in the 1857 portraits of Ojibwe people by Johnson are recognizable in people in the Ojibwe community today. Some of his paintings such as Ojibwe Wigwam at Grand Portage display near photorealism long before the photorealism movement.

    His careful attention to light sources contributes to the realism. Portraits Girl and Pets and The Boy Lincoln make use of single light sources in a manner that echoes the 17th Century Dutch Masters.


    Johnson's subject matter included portraits of the wealthy and influential from the President of the United States, to literary figures to portraits of unnamed individuals, but he is best known for his paintings of everyday people in everyday scenes. Johnson often repainted the same subject changing style or details.


  • Johann B. Jongkind

    (1819 – 1891) was a Dutch painter and printmaker. He painted marine landscapes in a free manner and is regarded as a forerunner of Impressionism.


    Jongkind was born in the town of Lattrop in the Overijssel province of the Netherlands near the border with Germany. Trained at the art academy in The Hague, in 1846 he moved to the Montmartre quarter of Paris, France where he studied under Eugène Isabey and Francois-Edouard Picot. Two years later, the Paris Salon accepted his work for its exhibition, and he received acclaim from critic Charles Baudelaire and later on from Emile Zola. He was to experience little success, however, and he suffered bouts of depression complicated by alcoholism.


    Jongkind returned to live in Rotterdam in 1855, and remained there until 1860. Back in Paris, in 1861 he rented a studio on the rue de Chevreuse in Montparnasse where some of his paintings began to show glimpses of the Impressionist style to come. In 1862 he met in Normandy, in the famous ferme Saint-Siméon in Honfleur, with some of his artist friends, such as Alfred Sisley, Eugene Boudin, and the young Claude Monet, to all of whom Jongkind served as a mentor. Monet later referred to him as "...a quiet man with such a talent that is beyond words" and credited the "definitive education" of his own eye to Jongkind. In 1863 Jongkind exhibited at the first Salon des Refusés. He was invited to participate in the first exhibition of the Impressionist group in 1874, but he declined.


    Jongkind's most frequent subject was the marine landscape, which he painted both in Holland and in France. Many of his works depict the Seine, particularly the area near Notre-Dame Cathedral. He painted watercolors out-of-doors, and used them as sketches for oil paintings made in his studio. His paintings are characterized by vigorous brushwork and strong contrasts. Like the 17th-century Dutch landscape painters, he typically composed his landscapes with a low horizon, allowing the sky to dominate.


    In 1878, Jongkind and his companion Joséphine Fesser moved to live in the small town of La Côte-Saint-André near Grenoble in the Isère département in the southeast of France where he died in 1891. He is buried there in the local cemetery. A street is named after him in the neighborhood of streets named after 19th and 20th century Dutch painters in Overtoomse Veld-Noord, Amsterdam.


  • Wassily Kandinsky

    (December 16, 1866 –December 13, 1944) was an influential Russian painter and art theorist. He is credited with painting the first purely abstract works. 


    Born in Moscow, Kandinsky spent his childhood in Odessa.  Later in life, he would recall being fascinated and stimulated by color as a child. His fascination with color symbolism and psychology continued as he grew. In 1889, he was part of an ethnographic research group which travelled to the Vologda region north of Moscow. In Looks on the Past, he relates that the houses and churches were decorated with such shimmering colors that upon entering them, he felt that he was moving into a painting. This experience, and his study of the region's folk art, was reflected in much of his early work. A few years later he first likened painting to composing music in the manner for which he would become noted, writing, "Color is the keyboard, the eyes are the hammers, the soul is the piano with many strings. The artist is the hand which plays, touching one key or another, to cause vibrations in the soul"


    In 1896, at the age of 30, Kandinsky gave up a promising career teaching law and economics to enroll in art school in Munich. He was not immediately granted admission, and began learning art on his own.


    Kandinsky's creation of purely abstract work followed a long period of development and maturation of intense thought based on his artistic experiences. He called this devotion to inner beauty, fervor of spirit, and spiritual desire inner necessity; it was a central aspect of his art.


    Art school, usually considered difficult, was easy for Kandinsky. It was during this time that he began to emerge as an art theorist as well as a painter.


    From 1906 to 1908 Kandinsky spent a great deal of time travelling across Europe until he settled in the small Bavarian town of Murnau.  The Blue Mountain (1908–1909) was painted at this time, demonstrating his trend toward abstraction.


    From 1918 to 1921, Kandinsky dealt with the cultural politics of Russia and collaborated in art education and museum reform. He painted little during this period, but devoted his time to artistic teaching, with a program based on form and color analysis; he also helped organize the Institute of Artistic Culture in Moscow. In 1916 he met Nina Andreievskaya, whom he married the following year. His spiritual, expressionistic view of art was ultimately rejected by the radical members of the Institute as too individualistic and bourgeois. In 1921, Kandinsky was invited to go to Germany to attend the Bauhaus of Weimar by its founder, architect Walter Gropius.


    Kandinsky was one of Die Blaue Vier (Blue Four), formed in 1923 with Klee, Feininger and von Jawlensky, which lectured and exhibited in the United States in 1924. Due to right-wing hostility, the Bauhaus left Weimar and settled in Dessau in 1925. Following a Nazi smear campaign the Bauhaus left Dessau in 1932 for Berlin, until its dissolution in July 1933. Kandinsky then left Germany, settling in Paris.


    Living in a small apartment in Paris Kandinsky created his work in a living-room studio. Biomorphic forms with supple, non-geometric outlines appear in his paintings—forms which suggest microscopic organisms but express the artist's inner life. Kandinsky used original color compositions, evoking Slavic popular art. He also occasionally mixed sand with paint to give a granular, rustic texture to his paintings.


    In 1936 and 1939 he painted his two last major compositions, the type of elaborate canvases he had not produced for many years. Composition IX has highly contrasted, powerful diagonals whose central form gives the impression of an embryo in the womb. Small squares of colors and colored bands stand out against the black background of Composition X as star fragments (or filaments), while enigmatic hieroglyphs with pastel tones cover a large maroon mass which seems to float in the upper-left corner of the canvas.


    Kandinsky's analyses on forms and colors result not from simple, arbitrary idea-associations but from the painter's inner experience. He spent years creating abstract, sensorially rich paintings, working with form and color, tirelessly observing his own paintings and those of other artists, noting their effects on his sense of color.


    In 2012, Christie's auctioned Kandinsky's Studie für Improvisation 8 (Study for Improvisation 8), a 1909 view of a man wielding a broadsword in a rainbow-hued village, for $23 million. The painting had been on loan to the Kunstmuseum Winterthur, Switzerland, since 1960 and was sold to a European collector by the Volkart Foundation, the charitable arm of the Swiss commodities trading firm Volkart Brothers. Before this sale, the artist's last record was set in 1990 when Sotheby's sold his Fugue (1914) for $20.9 million.


  • Erwin Kettemann - Attributed


  • Peter Kolean


  • Hermanes Jr. Koekkoek - Attributed


  • J. B. H. Kouk-Leck - Attributed
  • Walt Kuhn

    (October 27, 1877 – July 13, 1949) was an American painter and was an organizer of the modern art Armory Show of 1913, which was the first of its genre in America. Kuhn was born in Brooklyn, New York City. At 15, Kuhn sold his first drawings to a magazine and signed his name “Walt.” In 1893, he enrolled in art classes at the Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute.


    In 1899, Kuhn set out for California with only $60 in his pocket. Upon his arriving in San Francisco, he became an illustrator for WASP Magazine. In 1901, Walt left for Paris, where he briefly studied art at the Académie Colarossi before leaving to the Royal Academy in Munich. Once in the capital of Bavaria, he studied under Heinrich von Zugel (1850–1941), a member of the Barbizon School.

    In 1903, he returned to New York and was employed as an illustrator for local journals. In 1905, he held his first exhibition at the Salmagundi Club, establishing himself as both a cartoonist and a serious painter. In this same year, he completed his first illustrations for LIFE magazine.

    When the New York School of Art moved to Fort Lee, New Jersey in the summer of 1908, Kuhn joined the faculty. However, he disliked his experience with the school, and at the end of the school year, he returned to New York. There, he married Vera Spier. Soon after a daughter, Brenda Kuhn, was born.


    In 1909, he helped prepare his first solo-exhibition in New York. In the following years, Kuhn took part in founding the Association of American Painters and Sculptors- the organization responsible for the Armory Show of 1913. Kuhn acted as the executive secretary and was put in charge of finding European artists to participate. The Armory Show, which displayed both European and American modern art to New York audiences, proved to be both a controversy and triumph. Smart and sensational publicity, combined with strategic word-of-mouth, resulted in attendance figures over 200,000 and over $44 thousand in sales.


    Today, Walt Kuhn is best remembered for his key role in planning the Armory Show of 1913. Nevertheless, he holds a place in American art history as a skilled cartoonist, draughtsman, printmaker, sculptor and painter. Although he destroyed many of his early paintings, his works that remain today are powerful.


    His portraits of circus and vaudeville entertainers are some of the most memorable works of early American Modernism. They are reminiscent of commedia dell'arte actor portraits done by the French masters centuries earlier. Nevertheless, Kuhn's works are entirely his own. His intimate portraits and expressionistic still lifes can be found in many top museums and universities across the United States.


  • Marie Laurencin

    (1883-1956) was a French painter, stage designer, and illustrator. After studying porcelain painting at the Sèvres factory (1901) and drawing in Paris under the French flower painter Madelaine Lemaire (1845–1928), in 1903–4 she studied at the Académie Humbert in Paris, where she met Georges Braque and Francis Picabia. In 1907, she first exhibited paintings at the Salon des Indépendants, met Picasso at Clovis Sagot’s gallery and through Picasso was introduced to the poet Guillaume Apollinaire. Laurencin and Apollinaire were soon on intimate terms, their relationship lasting until 1912.


    Laurencin became a regular associate of the painters and poets associated with the Bateau-Lavoir, who included Picasso, Braque, Gris, Max Jacob and André Salmon. She was present at the banquet given by Picasso in honor of Henri Rousseau in 1908 and produced the first version of Apollinaire and his Friends in a highly simplified style, in which she pictured herself and the poet with Picasso and his companion Fernande Olivier. Both this and a larger version with additional figures show the influence of proto-Cubist works by Picasso and Braque, with their flat areas of color, shallow space and references to ‘primitive’ art. Despite Apollinaire’s claim that Laurencin was a Cubist, it is only to these very early Cubist experiments that her work bears any similarity. This influence, also apparent in such works as the Young Women  disappeared completely after World War I. Her paintings were shown in 1912 with those of Robert Delaunay at the Galerie Barbazanges in Paris, and seven of her works were included in the Armory Show held in New York in 1913.


    During World War I, Laurencin took refuge in Spain where, feeling painfully exiled, she produced few works. She met Picabia in Barcelona and contributed several poems to the magazine 391, although she otherwise had little involvement with Dada. Her return to Paris by 1921 was marked by the publication of L’Eventail, a collection of poems by Max Jacob, André Breton and others written in her honour. She soon arrived at her mature style, characterized by black-eyed figures painted in pale blues, roses and greens, as in Women with a Dog. Her portrait of Baroness Gourgand with Black Mantilla marked the beginning of her popularity as a society portrait painter in the 1920s and 1930s. Other portraits included those ofJeanne André Salmon and Coco Chanel, which was rejected by its sitter. Laurencin was commissioned by Serge Diaghilev in 1923 to provide costume and set designs for Francis Poulenc’s ballet Les Biches; later commissions for stage designs included those for Alfred de Musset’s comedy A Quoi rêvent les jeunes filles in 1928 and for the ballet Le Déjeuner sur l’herbe in 1945. For the Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes held in Paris in 1925 Laurencin collaborated with André Groult on the Chambre de Madame.


    Laurencin’s painting style remained constant throughout the 1930s and, apart from a number of flower pieces and occasional landscapes, she continued to paint portrait and figure works, such as The Rehearsal. She painted male figures only on rare occasions in portraits of friends such as André Salmon. From 1940 her painting showed a decline in the handling of form and color, the colors becoming much brighter. Throughout her life Laurencin illustrated books, the first being Louise Faure-Favier’s Les Choses qui seront vieilles. Later books included editions of Lewis Carroll’s Alice in Wonderland, and of Paul Verlaine’s Fêtes galantes.


  • Sir Thomas Lawrence - Attributed

    (1769-1830) (attributed) was the leading British portrait painter of the early 19th century, portraying most of the important personalities of the day in his polished and flattering style. He was a child prodigy and largely self-taught; at the age of 10 he was making accomplished portraits in crayon. He was influenced by Sir Joshua Reynolds during his youth; his style developed very little throughout his life.


    Lawrence, born in Bristol, England, moved with his family to Devizes and then to Bath. He took to painting in 1786 and became a pupil at the Royal Academy school in 1787; in the following year, at the age of 19, he exhibited his first portrait. In 1794 he became a member of the Academy and Painter-in-Ordinary to the King (George III) on the death of Reynolds in 1792. He was knighted in 1815 and became President of the Academy five years later. He was very successful in commercial terms, and made (and spent) a great deal of money. He was also a collector and formed one of the finest collections of Old Master drawings ever known.


    In 1818-20 he was in Aachen, Vienna and Rome on behalf of the Prince Regent, making full-length portraits of the allied sovereigns who had contributed to the defeat of Napoleon; these were for the prince's Waterloo Gallery at Windsor.



  • Fernand Leger

    (1881-1955) was a French painter, draughtsman, illustrator, printmaker, stage designer, film maker, and ceramicist. Among the most prominent artists in Paris in the first half of the 20th century, he was prolific in many media and articulated a consistent position on the role of art in society in his many lectures and writings. His mature work underwent many changes, from a Cubist-derived abstraction in the 1910s to a distinctive realist imagery in the 1950s. Léger attracted numerous students to his various schools, and his ideas and philosophy were disseminated by modern artists throughout Europe and the Americas.

  • Sir Peter Lely

    (1618-1680) was a Dutch painter, draughtsman, and collector active in England. By a combination of ability and good fortune, he rapidly established himself in mid 17th-century London as the natural successor in portrait painting to Anthony van Dyck. Between van Dyck's death in 1641 and the emergence of William Hogarth in the 1730s, Lely and his successor, Godfrey Kneller, were the leading portrait painters in England.


    After the restoration of the monarchy in 1660, Lely dominated the artistic scene, and his evocation of the court of Charles II is as potent and enduring as was van Dyck's of the halcyon days before the English Civil War. Although Lely's reputation was seriously damaged by portraits that came from his studio under his name but without much of his participation, his development of an efficient studio practice is of great importance in the history of British portrait painting. The collection of pictures, drawings, prints and sculpture he assembled was among the finest in 17th-century England after the dispersal of the legendary royal collections.


  • Stanislaus Victor Edouard Lepine

    (1835 – 1892) was a French painter who specialized in landscapes, especially views of the Seine. He was born in Caen, Normandy, to a family of cabinet makers, and in the early part of his career, he benefited greatly from the patronage of the collector Hazard and his friend Comte Doria. An important influence was Jean Baptiste Camille Corot, whom he met in Normandie in 1859 and under whom he began to study the following year. The influence of Johann Barthold Jongkind was also strong, evident particularly in his choice of subject matter and use of light. Lépine was a consistent artist and his style hardly changed after 1869; as a result, his works are difficult to date.


    The art of Lépine is recognized for joining the pre-Impressionists with the Impressionists. He established his reputation with views of Paris and paintings that depicted life on the banks of the Seine. While he gained little recognition during his lifetime, Lépine was highly regarded by his fellow artists and, in 1874, was invited to exhibit in the first Impressionist Exhibition. The artist died at the age of 57, almost totally paralyzed and so poor that a friend had to take up a collection to pay for his funeral. After his death, Lépine’s work began gaining some of the critical acclaim he so richly deserved. A retrospective exhibition of Lépine’s work was held at Durand-Ruel in December 1892


  • John Arthur Lomax

    (1857 – 1923) was a genre painter, born in Manchester, England. The artist’s subjects were mainly historical genre of the 17th and 18th centuries, especially of the Civil War period, often reflecting a dramatic or sentimental theme. He studied in Stuttgart and at the Munich Academy but returned to Manchester and later relocated to London. Titles at the Royal Academy of Art in London include “Thoughts of Christmas,” “An Old Master,” and “Flaw in the Title.”


    Lomax exhibited 33 paintings at the Royal Society of British Artists and also exhibited at the Royal Society of Artists, Birmingham; Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool; Manchester City Art Gallery; Royal Academy; and the Royal Institute of Oil Painters.


  • George Luks

    (1867 – 1933) was an American realist artist and illustrator. He is known for his paintings of urban subjects as examples of the Ashcan School of American art. He identified himself with the poorer classes and the subject matter of his paintings often reflected his attempts to reflect contemporary issues. His best known painting is The Wrestlers. Luks was an artist admired for his gutsy, true-to-life depictions. Born in Williamsport, Penn., Luks studied art in brief stints in 1884 at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts in Philadelphia and in 1889 in Germany at the Staatliche Kunstakademie in Düsseldorf. Not one to adhere to a class agenda, Luks preferred to study art on his own and traveled to Paris and London in 1889–1890 to see the art in those cities. In 1894, he began a career as a newspaper illustrator with the Philadelphia Press. In Philadelphia, Luks made friends with the artists William Glackens, Robert Henri, Everett Shinn and John Sloan.


    By 1896, Luks had moved to New York draw illustrations for the New York World. He exhibited with The Eight in 1908 and in the Armory Show in 1913. In the early 1920s, Luks made several trips to the coal region of Pennsylvania, where he had once worked as a breaker boy, depicting his surroundings in oils, watercolors and drawings. After teaching at the Art Students League from 1920 to 1924, he started the George Luks School of Painting in New York.


  • Reginald Marsh

    (March 14, 1898 – July 3, 1954) was an American painter, born in Paris, most notable for his depictions of life in New York City in the 1920s and 1930s. Crowded Coney Island beach scenes, popular entertainments such as vaudeville and burlesque, women, and jobless men on the Bowery are subjects that reappear throughout his work. He painted in egg tempera and in oils, and produced many watercolors, ink and ink wash drawings, and prints.


    Reginald Marsh was born in an apartment in Paris above the Café du Dome. He was the second son born to his parents who were both artists themselves. His mother, Alice Randall was a miniaturist painter and his father, Fred Dana Marsh, was a muralist and one of the earliest American painters to depict modern industry.


    Marsh attended the Lawrenceville School and graduated in 1920 from Yale University. At Yale Art School he worked as the star illustrator for the Yale Record, the college newspaper. He moved to New York after graduation, where his ambition was to find work as a freelance illustrator. In 1922 he was hired to sketch vaudeville and burlesque performers for a regular New York Daily News feature, and when The New Yorker began publication in 1925, Marsh was among the magazine's first cartoonists. He also submitted illustrations to the New Masses (an American Marxist journal published from the 1920s to the 1940s).


    A casual interest in learning to paint led Marsh, in 1921, to begin taking classes at the Art Students League of New York, where his first teacher was John Sloan. By 1923 Marsh began to paint seriously. In 1925 Marsh visited Paris for the first time since he had lived there as a child and he fell in love with what the city had to offer him. Although Marsh had appreciated the drawings of Raphael, Leonardo Da Vinci and Michelangelo since he was a child—his father's studio was full of reproductions of the old masters' work—the famous paintings that he saw at the Louvre and other museums stimulated in him a new fascination with the old masters.


    Marsh then studied under Kenneth Hayes Miller and George Luks, and chose to do fewer commercial assignments. Marsh began to work with John Steuart Curry after his training with Miller. Both Marsh and Curry took lessons from Jacques Maroger, whom Marsh met in New York City in 1940.


    Marsh's etchings were his first work as an artist. In the early 1920s he also made several linocuts, and later produced lithographs and engravings. He kept careful watch of the technique he used for his prints, noting the temperature of the room, the age of the bath that his plates were soaked in, the composition, and the length of time the plate was etched. When making prints of the etchings, Marsh recorded how long the paper soaked for, the heating of the plate, and the nature of the ink used. Marsh enjoyed experimentation with all his artworks and was therefore renowned for his unique techniques. In the early 1920s he began to work with watercolor and oil. He did not take to oil naturally and decided to stick to watercolor for the next decade. Yet, in 1929 he discovered egg tempera, which he found to be somewhat like watercolor but with more depth and body.


    Reginald Marsh rejected modern art, which he found sterile. Marsh's style can best be described as social realism. His work depicted the Great Depression and a range of social classes whose division was accentuated by the economic crash. Marsh's main attractions were the burlesque stage, the hobos on the Bowery, crowds on city streets and at Coney Island, and women. His deep devotion to the old masters led to his creating works of art in a style that reflects certain artistic traditions, and his work often contained religious metaphors. Marsh filled sketchbooks with drawings made on the street, in the subway, or at the beach. Signage, newspaper headlines, and advertising images are often prominent in Marsh's finished paintings, in which color is used to expressive ends—drab and brown in Bowery scenes; lurid and garish in sideshow scenes.


    The drawings of burlesque and vaudeville acts Marsh made in the 1920s for the New York Daily News are among the first of his many images of popular theater. Such entertainments flourished throughout the country and were available all over New York City. The burlesque that Marsh captured can be described as raunchy and vulgar, but also comedic and satiric. Marsh's drawings depict chorus girls, clowns, theater goers and strippers.


    During the 1940s and for many years Reginald Marsh became an important teacher at the Art Students League of New York, which ran a summer camp where Marsh's students included Roy Lichtenstein. Lichtenstein was influenced by Marsh's subject matter in his work. Also in the 40s Marsh began making drawings for magazines such as Esquire, Fortune, and Life. A degree of mannerism is apparent in his later paintings, in which wraithlike figures "float in a watery netherworld" in a deeper pictorial space than that of his compositions of the 1930s.


    Shortly before his death he received the Gold Medal for Graphic Arts awarded by the American Academy and the National Institute for Arts and Letters. Marsh died from a heart attack in Dorset, Vermont on July 3, 1954.


    © 2013 Estate of Reginald Marsh / Art Students League, New York / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York


  • Henri Matisse


    (December 31, 1869 –November 3, 1954) was a French artist, known for his use of color. He was a draughtsman, printmaker, and sculptor, but is known primarily as a painter. Matisse is commonly regarded, along with Pablo Picasso and Marcel Duchamp, as one of the three artists who helped to define the revolutionary developments in the plastic arts in the opening decades of the 20th century, responsible for significant developments in painting and sculpture. Although he was initially labeled a Fauve (wild beast), by the 1920s he was increasingly hailed as an upholder of the classical tradition in French painting.  His mastery of the expressive language of color and drawing, displayed in a body of work spanning over a half-century, won him recognition as a leading figure in modern art.


    Matisse was born in Le Cateau-Cambrésis, Nord, France, the oldest son of a prosperous grain merchant. He grew up in Bohain-en-Vermandois, Picardie, France. He first started to paint in 1889, after his mother brought him art supplies during a period of convalescence following an attack of appendicitis. In 1891, he returned to Paris to study art at the Académie Julian and became a student of William-Adolphe Bouguereau and Gustave Moreau. Initially, he painted still-lifes and landscapes in a traditional style, at which he achieved reasonable proficiency. Matisse was influenced by the works of earlier masters such as Jean-Baptiste-Siméon Chardin, Nicolas Poussin, and Antoine Watteau, as well as by modern artists such as Édouard Manet, and by Japanese art.


    In 1896 and 1897, Matisse visited the Australian painter John Peter Russell on the island Belle Île, off the coast of Brittany. Russell introduced him to Impressionism and to the work of van Gogh, who had been a friend of Russell but was completely unknown at the time. Matisse's style changed completely.

    With the model Caroline Joblau, he had a daughter, Marguerite, born in 1894. In 1898, he married Amélie Noellie Parayre; the two raised Marguerite together and had two sons, Jean (born 1899) and Pierre (born 1900).


    In 1898, on the advice of Camille Pissarro, he went to London to study the paintings of J. M. W. Turner. Many of Matisse's paintings from 1898 to 1901 make use of a Divisionist technique he adopted after reading Paul Signac's essay, "D'Eugène Delacroix au Néo-impressionisme."


    Matisse is known as a leader of Fauvism. Fauvism as a style began around 1900 and continued beyond 1910. In 1905, Matisse and a group of artists now known as "Fauves" exhibited together in a room at the Salon d'Automne. The paintings expressed emotion with wild, often dissonant colors, without regard for the subject's natural colors. The painting that was singled out for special condemnation, Matisse's Woman with a Hat, was bought by Gertrude and Leo Stein.


    In 1952 he established a museum dedicated to his work, the Matisse Museum in Le Cateau, and this museum is now the third-largest collection of Matisse works in France.


    According to David Rockefeller, Matisse's final work was the design for a stained-glass window installed at the Union Church of Pocantico Hills near the Rockefeller estate north of New York City. "It was his final artistic creation; the maquette was on the wall of his bedroom when he died in November of 1954", Rockefeller writes. Installation was completed in 1956.


    Matisse died of a heart attack at the age of 84 in 1954. He is interred in the cemetery of the Monastère Notre Dame de Cimiez, near Nice.


  • John Alan Maxwell

    (March 7, 1904 – April 13, 1984)  Born in Roanoke, Va., raised in Johnson City, Tenn., at 428 1/2 West Locust Street, John Alan Maxell was the son of Arthur Clifford Maxwell and Bessie Mae (Ball) Maxwell. He was the oldest of five children, including Elizabeth Victoria Maxwell (Smedberg), Clifford Arthur Maxwell, Gladys Virginia Maxwell (McDaniel), and Julia Reeve Maxwell (Croasdell).


    Maxwell worked as a soda jerk in a drug store while attending Science Hill High School in Johnson City. At 16, he enrolled at the Corcoran School of Art in Washington, D.C. He continued his studies at the Art Students League of New York, where he studied under painter George Luks, a member of the Ashcan School of early twentieth-century American artists who often painted pictures of New York city life. One of his other teachers was noted book and magazine illustrator Frank Vincent DuMond, whose students also included Georgia O'Keeffe and Norman Rockwell.


    By 1925, at the age of 21, Maxwell was illustrating for Collier’s and Golden Book magazines and had established a studio at the famous Tenth Street Studio Building. The building, designed by Richard Morris Hunt, was erected and opened in 1858 by James Boorman Johnston (1822–1887), whose brother, John Taylor Johnston, became the first president of the Metropolitan Museum of Art a few years later. The Tenth Street Studio Building at 51 West Tenth Street in New York was home to “artist entrepreneurs” for 98 years—artists from the Hudson River School to the American Impressionists—including such famous artists as Frederick E. Church, Albert Bierstadt, Winslow Homer, Sanford R. Gifford, John La Farge and William Merritt Chase. The previous occupant of Maxwell’s studio was the Lebanese artist, poet, and writer Kahlil Gibran.

    By the early 1930s, Maxwell was illustrating for such noted writers as Christopher Morley, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, Pearl S. Buck and Edna Ferber.


    His illustrations for Aldous Huxley's first novel, Sir Hercules and Lady Filomena, appeared in the April, 1931 issue of Golden Book magazine, the same year Huxley was writing Brave New World. His erotic drawings enhance Le Sage's Asmodeus, or The Devil on Two Sticks published in 1932 by the Bibliophilist Society.

    In 1936, he was named one of the top ten illustrators in the country in 1936 by the Society of Illustrators in New York and won first place in the Society of Illustrators competition in New York—and was named one of the top 10 illustrators in the country. A prolific illustrator, other authors for whom he illustrated include John Steinbeck, Joseph Conrad, F. Van Wyck Mason, Allan Eckert, Frank Yerby, James Street, Booth Tarkington, Frank Slaughter, and Thomas Costain. He maintained his studio at the Tenth Street Studio until it was demolished in 1956. Maxwell returned to Johnson City shortly thereafter, and continued to work at his studio at 428 West Locust Street until his death in 1984.


    Maxwell illustrated multiple books and magazine serials for Pearl S. Buck for over a decade, including the portrait of the author’s mother for the cover of the 1935 book, The Exile, and the companion portrait of her father for the cover of her 1936 book, Fighting Angel, in addition to his illustrations of the serialized editions of these two books in Woman's Home Companion from 1935-1937. For the Doubleday Doran & Company, Maxwell illustrated a 1929 United States edition of The Adventures of the Scarlet Pimpernel by Baroness Emmuska Orczy, the British novelist, playwright and artist.


    Maxwell was a contemporary of N.C. Wyeth, an important 20th century illustrator, and better known. Maxwell and Wyeth each illustrated five novels for Rafael Sabatini. Wyeth and Maxwell also both illustrated works for C. S. Forester's popular Horatio Hornblower series. Maxwell illustrated the dust jacket for the 1933 first edition of Hervey Allen's Anthony Adverse, followed by Wyeth's illustration of a 1934 edition of the same book. Both editions featured interior decorations by Allan McNab. Maxwell's 1933 dust jacket illustration re-appears as an embossed duotone on a book-bound edition of Anthony Adverse in 1936. This same illustration also appears on a 1933 wooden Arteno "Picture Puzzle" in full color. Wyeth and Maxwell both illustrated books for Charles Nordhoff and James Norman Hall, the authors of Mutiny on the Bounty (Wyeth) and No More Gas (Maxwell). No More Gas originally appeared in a c. 1939 Saturday Evening Post as Out of Gas. Today, Maxwell's original Alan Eckert illustrations also adorn recent reprint editions of Allan Eckert's novels, including The Frontiersmen, Wilderness Empire and The Conquerors. Maxwell was still illustrating books for Eckert when he died in 1984.


  • Anton Raphael Mengs - Attributed

    Anton Raphael Mengs was born in 1728 at Ústí nad Labem in Bohemia. His father, Ismael Mengs, a Danish painter, established himself at Dresden, and in 1741 he took his son to Rome.


    In Rome, his fresco painting of Parnassus at Villa Albani gained him a reputation as a master painter. The appointment of Mengs in 1749 as first painter to Frederick Augustus, elector of Saxony, did not prevent his spending much time in Rome, where he had married Margarita Guazzi who had sat for him as a model in 1748, and abjured the Protestant faith, and where he became in 1754 director of the Vatican school of painting, nor did this hinder him on two occasions from obeying the call of Charles III of Spain to Madrid. There Mengs produced some of his best work, and specially the ceiling of the banqueting-hall of the Royal Palace of Madrid, the subject of which was the Triumph of Trajan and the Temple of Glory. Among his pupils there was Agustín Esteve. After the completion of this work in 1777, Mengs returned to Rome, and there he died, two years later, in poor circumstances, leaving twenty children, seven of whom were pensioned by the King of Spain. His portraits and self-portraits recall an attention to detail and insight, often lost from the grand manner paintings.


    Besides numerous paintings in the Madrid gallery, the Ascension and St Joseph at Dresden, Perseus and Andromeda at Saint Petersburg, and the ceiling of the Villa Albani must be mentioned among his chief works. In 1911, Henry George Percy, 7th Duke of Northumberland, possessed a Holy Family, and the colleges of All Souls and Magdalen, at Oxford, possessed altar-pieces by Mengs's hand.


    In his writings, in Spanish, Italian and German, Mengs has put forth his eclectic theory of art, which treats of perfection as attainable by a well-schemed combination of diverse excellences Greek design, with the expression of Raphael, the chiaroscuro of Correggio, and the color of Titian. He would have fancied himself the first neoclassicist, while in fact he may be the last flicker of Baroque art. Or in the words of Wittkower, “In the last analysis, he is as much an end as a beginning.”


    His intimacy with Johann Joachim Winckelmann, who constantly wrote at his dictation, has enhanced his historical importance, for he formed no scholars, and the critic must now concur in Goethe's judgment of Mengs in Winckelmann und sein Jahrhundert; “he must deplore that so much learning should have been allied to a total want of initiative and poverty of invention, and embodied with a strained and artificial mannerism.”

    Mengs had a well-known rivalry with the contemporary Italian painter Pompeo Batoni. He was also a friend of Giacomo Casanova. Casanova provides accounts of his personality and contemporary reputation through anecdotes in Histoire de Ma Vie.


    Mengs died in Rome in June 1779 and was buried in the Roman Church of Santi Michele e Magno.


  • Joan Miró

    (April 20, 1893 – December 25, 1983) was a Catalan painter, sculptor, and ceramicist born in Barcelona. A museum dedicated to his work, the Fundació Joan Miró, was established in his birth city in 1975.

    Earning international acclaim, his work has been interpreted as Surrealism, a sandbox for the subconscious mind, a re-creation of the childlike, and a manifestation of Catalan pride. In numerous interviews dating from the 1930s onwards, Miró expressed contempt for conventional painting methods as a way of supporting bourgeois society, and famously declared an "assassination of painting" in favour of upsetting the visual elements of established painting.


    Born to the families of a goldsmith and a cabinet-maker, he grew up in the Barri Gòtic neighborhood of Barcelona. His father was Miquel Miró Adzerias and his mother was Dolores Ferrà. He began drawing classes at the age of seven at a private school at Carrer del Regomir 13, a medieval mansion. In 1907 he enrolled at the fine art academy at La Llotja, to the dismay of his father. He studied at the Cercle Artístic de Sant Lluc and he had his first solo show in 1918 at the Dalmau Gallery, where his work was ridiculed and defaced. Inspired by Cubist and surrealist exhibitions from abroad, Miró was drawn towards the arts community that was gathering in Montparnasse and in 1920 moved to Paris, but continued to spend his summers in Catalonia.


    In 1924, Miró joined the Surrealist group. The already symbolic and poetic nature of Miró’s work, as well as the dualities and contradictions inherent to it, fit well within the context of dream-like automatism espoused by the group.


    Miró has been a significant influence on late 20th-century art, in particular the American abstract expressionist artists such as Motherwell, Calder, Gorky, Pollock, Matta and Rothko, while his lyrical abstractions and color field paintings were precursors of that style by artists such as Frankenthaler, Olitski and Louis and others. His work has also influenced modern designers, including Paul Rand and Lucienne Day, and influenced recent painters such as Julian Hatton.


  • Frances Luis Mora

    (1874 – 1940), was an Hispanic American illustrator, muralist and portraitist whose work reflects a blend of Spanish and modern-American influences. He worked in oil, watercolor, charcoal and pastel; he also produced etchings and sculpture. His subjects were generally interiors, seascapes and landscapes with figures and are noted for capturing the flavor of leisured life, particularly in outdoor scenes.


    Born in Uruguay, Mora was the son of Domingo Mora, a noted artist. After his family came to the United States, Mora attended school in New Jersey, New York City and Boston. He studied drawing with Frank Benson and Edmund Tarbell at the Boston Museum of Fine Arts School; later, he studied under H. Siddons Mowbray at the Art Students League in New York City. He also traveled to Europe to study the great paintings of the old masters. By the age of 18, Mora was illustrating for leading periodicals. He began exhibiting two years later, and in 1900 he received a commission for a mural in the public library of Lynn, Mass. In 1904, he painted the Missouri State Building mural for the Louisiana Purchase Exposition in St. Louis, Mo. He also painted portraits of Andrew Carnegie and President Warren G. Harding; the latter hangs in the White House. Also an art instructor, Mora taught at the Art Students League, the Grand Central School of Art and the New York School of Art, all in New York City.


  • Thomas Moran

    (1837 – 1926) from Bolton, England was an American painter and printmaker of the Hudson River School in New York whose work often featured the Rocky Mountains. Destined to become one of America's greatest landscape artists, Moran and his family sailed from England in 1844 to America. The family settled in New York where the artist later obtained work as an artist. A talented illustrator and exquisite colorist, Moran was hired as an illustrator at Scribner's Monthly. During the late 1860s, he was appointed the chief illustrator of the magazine, a position that helped him launch his career as one of the premier painters of the American landscape. Moran along with Albert Bierstadt, Thomas Hill and William Keith are sometimes referred to as belonging to the Rocky Mountain School of landscape painters because of all of the Western landscapes made by this group.


    Deeply influenced by J.M.W. Turner, whose work he had studied on two trips to England, Moran was determined to capture the way things look, including the effects of atmosphere and light on color and form. Moran also stands at the beginning of the conservationist movement in the American West. His first painting of Yellowstone, for instance, was instrumental in the creation there of the first U.S. national park. Depictions of the American West dominated most of his work, and the subject to which he returned most frequently was the Grand Canyon.


  • Edward Moran

    (1829 – 1901) was an American artist known for painting marine subjects. Among his works are 13 historical paintings that illustrate the marine history of America from the time of Leif Ericsson to the return of Admiral Dewey's fleet from the Philippines in 1899.


    Born in Bolton, Lancashire, England, Moran immigrated with his family to America at the age of 15 and subsequently settled in Philadelphia, where, after having followed his father’s trade of weaver, he began studying with painters James Hamilton and Paul Weber. In 1862, Moran became a pupil of the Royal Academy in London. He established a studio in New York in 1872; however, for many years after 1877, he lived in Paris. Examples of his work, such as “Devil’s Crag, Island of Grand Manan,” are in many prominent collections. His sons, Edward Percy Moran (born 1862) and Leon Moran (born 1864), and his brothers Peter Moran (born 1842) and Thomas Moran (member of Hayden Geological Survey of 1871), as well as his nephew Jean Leon Gerome Ferris, also became prominent American artists.


  • George Detoures Moreau

    (1848 – 1901) was a French painter born in Ivry-sur-Seine, near Paris. He was the son of psychiatrist Jacques-Joseph Moreau, whose portrait the artist painted, and the brother of psychiatrist Paul Moreau de Tours.


    At age 17, Moreau entered the Ecole des Beaux-Arts where he studied under Alexandre Cabanel and Louis Marguerite. He exhibited regularly at the Salon de Paris between 1864 and 1896. One of his most noted paintings, "Le repas du soir," is in the Rochefort-sur-Mer Museum. He also decorated, in an allegoric style, the wedding room of the Paris Second District Town Hall in 1879. He was decorated Chevalier de la Legion d'honneur in 1892. He died in Bois-le-Roi in 1901.


  • Renato Moretti

    (1863 – 1910)

  •  Auguste Morisot - Morizot

    (1857-1951) was born in Lyon, France, and was a painter and a great master in the arts of drawing and stained glass. He studied and taught at the Lyon School of Fine Art.


    Two of Morisot's favorite themes were nature and the home. He is known for works that create a gentle, cozy and moving atmosphere. The portraits of his wife and their little girl display the benevolent and attentive eye of the father, the husband and the artist.


  • Henry Spencer Moore

    (1898 – 1986) was an English sculptor and artist, who was best known for his semi-abstract monumental bronze sculptures, which today are located around the world as public works of art. His forms are usually abstractions of the human figure, typically depicting mother-and-child or reclining figures. The female body is usually suggestive in his works, apart from a phase in the 1950s when he sculpted family groups. His forms are generally pierced or contain hollow spaces. Many interpreters liken the undulating form of his reclining figures to the landscape and hills of his birthplace, Yorkshire.


    Moore was born in Castleford, the son of a coal miner. He became well-known through his carved marble and larger-scale abstract cast bronze sculptures and was instrumental in introducing a particular form of modernism to the United Kingdom. His ability in later life to fulfill large-scale commissions made him exceptionally wealthy, yet he lived frugally and most of the money he earned went towards endowing the Henry Moore Foundation, which continues to support education and promotion of the arts.


  • Berthe' Morisot (wife of Eugene Man)

    (1841 – 1895) was a painter and a member of the circle of painters in Paris who became known as the Impressionists. She was married to Eugène Manet, who was brother to her friend and colleague, Édouard Manet.


    Morisot was described by Gustave Geffroy in 1894 as one of "les trois grandes dames" of Impressionism, alongside Marie Bracquemond and Mary Cassatt. In 1864, she exhibited for the first time in the highly esteemed Salon de Paris. Sponsored by the government and judged by academicians, the Salon was the official, annual exhibition of the Académie des beaux-arts in Paris. Her work was selected for exhibition in six subsequent Salons until, in 1874, she joined the "rejected" Impressionists in the first of their own exhibitions, which included Paul Cézanne, Edgar Degas, Claude Monet, Camille Pissarro, Pierre-Auguste Renoir and Alfred Sisley. The exhibition was held at the studio of the photographer Nadar.


  • Caspar Netscher

    (1639 – 1684) was a Dutch portrait and genre painter. He was a master in depicting oriental rugs, silk and brocade and introduced an international style to the Northern Netherlands. Born in Heidelberg, Netscher was the son of Johann Netscher, a sculptor from Stuttgart, who married Elizabet Vetter, the daughter of a mayor in Heidelberg, against her father's wishes. When Heidelberg was attacked during the Civil War, Caspar's mother fled with four children to an estate outside the city. When the castle was laid under siege, the people there suffered from hunger, and Caspar's two older brothers died. Caspar's mother fled in the night, with her remaining children, eventually landing in Arnhem, where Netscher was adopted by a rich physician named A. Tullekens. Because of his aptitude for painting, Netscher was placed under a local artist named Hendrick Coster and eventually became a student of Ter Borch in Deventer.


    In 1658, he set out for Italy to complete his education, booking passage on a ship to Bordeaux with letters of introduction from Tullekens. From Bordeaux, he planned to proceed overland to Italy. However, while in Bordeaux he met the mathematician and fountain designer Godijn and married his daughter, Margaretha Godijn, in 1659. Remaining in Bordeaux, he worked hard to earn a livelihood by painting small cabinet pictures which are now highly valued. He moved back to The Hague in 1662, turning his attention to painting portraits. It was in these that Netscher's genius was fully displayed. He was gaining both fame and wealth when he began to suffer from gout and took to his bed, where he continued to paint lying down. He died prematurely in 1684.


  • Edmund Petitjean

    (1844 – 1925) was a French painter who was born in Neufchâteau (Vosges) and known for his landscapes and seascapes. Petitjean exhibited his work for the first time in the Salon, the official art exhibition of the Académie des Beaux-Arts in Paris, in 1874. He was given an honorable mention at the Salon in 1881 and became associate member of the institution in 1883. He was given the 1st Class Medal in 1884 and 2nd Class the following year.


    Petitjean participated in the decoration of houses for the Paris Exposition of 1889, for which he received a silver medal. The following year, he exhibited at Munich. He was made a knight of the French Legion of Honor in 1892. He painted Le Puy, under the watchful eye of the architect in charge of the decoration, Marius Toudoire, and got a gold medal at the Exposition Universelle. The artist died on in 1925 in Paris at the age of 81.


  • Pablo Ruiz Picasso

    Pablo Ruiz Picasso (October 25, 1881 – April 8, 1973) was a Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker, ceramicist, and stage designer who spent most of his adult life in France. As one of the greatest and most influential artists of the 20th century, he is widely known for co-founding the Cubist movement, the invention of constructed sculpture, the co-invention of collage, and for the wide variety of styles that he helped develop and explore. Among his most famous works are the proto-Cubist Les Demoiselles d'Avignon (1907), and Guernica (1937), a portrayal of the German bombing of Guernica during the Spanish Civil War.


    Picasso, Henri Matisse and Marcel Duchamp are commonly regarded as the three artists who most defined the revolutionary developments in the plastic arts in the opening decades of the 20th century, responsible for significant developments in painting, sculpture, printmaking and ceramics.

    Picasso demonstrated extraordinary artistic talent in his early years, painting in a realistic manner through his childhood and adolescence. During the first decade of the 20th century, his style changed as he experimented with different theories, techniques, and ideas. His revolutionary artistic accomplishments brought him universal renowned and immense fortune, making him one of the best-known figures in 20th-century art.


    Prolific as a draftsman, sculptor, and printmaker, Picasso's primary medium was painting. He usually painted from imagination or memory, and worked in many different styles throughout his career. Although he used color as an expressive element, he relied on drawing rather than subtleties of color to create form and space. A nanoprobe of Picasso's The Red Armchair (1931) by physicists at Argonne National Laboratory in 2012 confirmed art historians' belief that Picasso used common house paint in many of his paintings.


    Picasso’s work is often categorized into periods. While the names of many of his later periods are debated, the most commonly accepted periods in his work are the Blue Period (1901–1904), the Rose Period (1905–1907), the African-influenced Period (1908–1909), Analytic Cubism (1909–1912), and Synthetic Cubism (1912–1919).


    In 1939–40 the Museum of Modern Art in New York City, under its director Alfred Barr, a Picasso enthusiast, held a major and highly successful retrospective of his principal works up until that time. This exhibition lionized the artist, brought into full public view in America the scope of his artistry, and resulted in a reinterpretation of his work by contemporary art historians and scholars.


    Before 1901

    Picasso’s training under his father began before 1890. His progress can be traced in the collection of early works now held by the Museu Picasso in Barcelona, which provides one of the most comprehensive records extant of any major artist’s beginnings. During 1893 the juvenile quality of his earliest work falls away, and by 1894 his career as a painter can be said to have begun. The academic realism apparent in the works of the mid-1890s is well displayed in The First Communion (1896), a large composition that depicts his sister, Lola. In the same year, at the age of 14, he painted Portrait of Aunt Pepa, a vigorous and dramatic portrait that Juan-Eduardo Cirlot has called "without a doubt one of the greatest in the whole history of Spanish painting."

    In 1897 his realism became tinged with Symbolist influence, in a series of landscape paintings rendered in non-naturalistic violet and green tones. What some call his Modernist period (1899–1900) followed. His exposure to the work of Rossetti, Steinlen, Toulouse-Lautrec and Edvard Munch, combined with his admiration for favorite old masters such as El Greco, led Picasso to a personal version of modernism in his works of this period.


    Blue Period

    Picasso’s Blue Period (1901–1904) consists of somber paintings rendered in shades of blue and blue-green, only occasionally warmed by other colors. This period’s starting point is uncertain; it may have begun in Spain in the spring of 1901 or in Paris in the second half of the year. Many paintings of gaunt mothers with children date from this period. In his austere use of color and sometimes doleful subject matter – prostitutes and beggars are frequent subjects – Picasso was influenced by a trip through Spain and by the suicide of his friend Carlos Casagemas. Starting in autumn of 1901, he painted several posthumous portraits of Casagemas, culminating in the gloomy allegorical painting La Vie (1903), now in the Cleveland Museum of Art.

    The same mood pervades the well-known etching The Frugal Repast (1904), which depicts a blind man and a sighted woman, both emaciated, seated at a nearly bare table. Blindness is a recurrent theme in Picasso’s works of this period, also represented in The Blindman’s Meal (1903, the Metropolitan Museum of Art) and in the portrait of Celestina (1903). Other works include Portrait of Soler and Portrait of Suzanne Bloch.


    Rose Period

    The Rose Period (1904–1906) is characterized by a more cheery style with orange and pink colors, and featuring many circus people, acrobats and harlequins known in France as saltimbanques. The harlequin, a comedic character usually depicted in checkered patterned clothing, became a personal symbol for Picasso. Picasso met Fernande Olivier, a model for sculptors and artists, in Paris in 1904, and many of these paintings are influenced by his warm relationship with her, in addition to his increased exposure to French painting. The generally upbeat and optimistic mood of paintings in this period is reminiscent of the 1899–1901 period (i.e. just prior to the Blue Period) and 1904 can be considered a transition year between the two periods.


    African-influenced Period

    Picasso’s African-influenced Period (1907–1909) begins with the two figures on the right in his painting, Les Demoiselles d'Avignon, which were inspired by African artifacts. Formal ideas developed during this period lead directly into the Cubist period that follows.



    Analytic cubism (1909–1912) is a style of painting Picasso developed along with Georges Braque using monochrome brownish and neutral colors. Both artists took apart objects and "analyzed" them in terms of their shapes. Picasso and Braque’s paintings at this time have many similarities. Synthetic cubism (1912–1919) was a further development of the genre, in which cut paper fragments – often wallpaper or portions of newspaper pages – were pasted into compositions, marking the first use of collage in fine art.


    Classicism and Surrealism

    In the period following the upheaval of World War I, Picasso produced work in a neoclassical style. This "return to order" is evident in the work of many European artists in the 1920s, including André Derain, Giorgio de Chirico, Gino Severini, the artists of the New Objectivity movement and of the Novecento Italiano movement. Picasso’s paintings and drawings from this period frequently recall the work of Raphael and Ingres.


    During the 1930s, the minotaur replaced the harlequin as a common motif in his work. His use of the minotaur came partly from his contact with the surrealists, who often used it as their symbol, and it appears in Picasso’s Guernica. The minotaur and Picasso's mistress Marie-Thérèse Walter are heavily featured in his celebrated Vollard Suite of etchings.


    Arguably Picasso's most famous work is his depiction of the German bombing of Guernica during the Spanish Civil War – Guernica. This large canvas embodies for many the inhumanity, brutality and hopelessness of war. Asked to explain its symbolism, Picasso said, "It isn't up to the painter to define the symbols. Otherwise it would be better if he wrote them out in so many words. The public who look at the picture must interpret the symbols as they understand them."


    Guernica was on display in New York’s Museum of Modern Art for many years. In 1981, it was returned to Spain and was on exhibit at the Casón del Buen Retiro. In 1992, the painting was put on display in Madrid’s Reina Sofía Museum when it opened.


    Later works

    Picasso was one of 250 sculptors who exhibited in the 3rd Sculpture International held at the Philadelphia Museum of Art in mid-1949. In the 1950s, Picasso’s style changed once again, as he took to producing reinterpretations of the art of the great masters. He made a series of works based on Velazquez’s painting of Las Meninas. He also based paintings on works by Goya, Poussin, Manet, Courbet and Delacroix.


    He was commissioned to make a Maquette for a huge 50-foot (15 m)-high public sculpture to be built in Chicago, known usually as the Chicago Picasso. He approached the project with a great deal of enthusiasm, designing a sculpture which was ambiguous and somewhat controversial. What the figure represents is not known; it could be a bird, a horse, a woman or a totally abstract shape. The sculpture, one of the most recognizable landmarks in downtown Chicago, was unveiled in 1967. Picasso refused to be paid $100,000 for it, donating it to the people of the city.


    Picasso’s final works were a mixture of styles, his means of expression in constant flux until the end of his life. Devoting his full energies to his work, Picasso became more daring, his works more colorful and expressive, and from 1968 through 1971 he produced a torrent of paintings and hundreds of copperplate etchings. At the time these works were dismissed by most as pornographic fantasies of an impotent old man or the slapdash works of an artist who was past his prime. Only later, after Picasso’s death, when the rest of the art world had moved on from abstract expressionism, did the critical community come to see that Picasso had already discovered neo-expressionism and was, as so often before, ahead of his time.


    © 2013 Estate of Pablo Picasso / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York

  • Camille Pissarro

    (July 10, 1830 – November 13, 1903) was a Danish-French Impressionist and Neo-Impressionist painter born on the island of St Thomas (now in the U.S. Virgin Islands, but then in the Danish West Indies). His importance resides in his contributions to both Impressionism and Post-Impressionism. Pissarro studied from great forerunners, including Gustave Courbet and Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot. He later studied and worked alongside Georges Seurat and Paul Signac when he took on the Neo-Impressionist style at the age of 54.


    When he turned twenty-one, Danish artist Fritz Melbye, then living on St. Thomas, inspired Pissarro to take on painting as a full-time profession, becoming his teacher and friend. Pissarro then chose to leave his family and job and live in Venezuela, where he and Melbye spent the next two years working as artists in Caracas. He drew everything he could, including landscapes, village scenes, and numerous sketches, enough to fill up multiple sketchbooks. In 1855, he moved back to Paris where he began working as assistant to Anton Melbye, Fritz Melbye's brother.


    In Paris, he worked as assistant to Danish painter Anton Melbye. He also studied paintings by other artists whose style impressed him: Courbet, Charles-François Daubigny, Jean-François Millet, and Corot. He also enrolled in various classes taught by masters, at schools such as École des Beaux-Arts and Académie Suisse. In 1859, his first painting was accepted and exhibited at the Paris Salon. His other paintings during that period were influenced by Camille Corot, who tutored him. He and Corot both shared a love of rural scenes painted from nature. It was from Corot that Pissarro was inspired to paint outdoors, also called "plein air" painting. Pissarro found Corot, along with the work of Gustave Courbet, to be “statements of pictorial truth,” writes Rewald. Pissarro preferred to finish his paintings outdoors, often at one sitting, which gave his work a more realistic feel. As a result, his art was sometimes criticized as being “vulgar,” because he painted what he saw: “rutted and edged hodgepodge of bushes, mounds of earth, and trees in various stages of development.” According to one source, details such as those were equivalent to today’s art showing garbage cans or beer bottles on the side of a street scene.


    When Pissarro returned to his home in France after the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–71, he discovered that of the 1,500 paintings he had done over 20 years, which he was forced to leave behind when he moved to London, only 40 remained. The rest had been damaged or destroyed by the soldiers, who often used them as floor mats outside in the mud to keep their boots clean. It is assumed that many of those lost were done in the Impressionist style he was then developing, thereby “documenting the birth of Impressionism,” a style that some credit him with inventing.

    In 1873, he helped establish a collective society of fifteen aspiring artists, becoming the “pivotal” figure in holding the group together and encouraging the other members. Art historian John Rewald called Pissarro the “dean of the Impressionist painters", not only because he was the oldest of the group, but also "by virtue of his wisdom and his balanced, kind, and warmhearted personality.” Cézanne said “he was a father for me - a man to consult and a little like the good Lord,” and he was also one of Gauguin's masters. Renoir referred to his work as “revolutionary”, through his artistic portrayals of the "common man", as Pissarro insisted on painting individuals in natural settings without "artifice or grandeur".


    Pissarro is the only artist to have shown his work at all eight Paris Impressionist exhibitions, from 1874 to 1886. As a stylistic forerunner of Impressionism, he is today considered a "father figure not only to the Impressionists" but to all four of the major Post-Impressionists, including Georges Seurat, Paul Cézanne, Vincent van Gogh and Paul Gauguin.


  • Maurice Brazil Prendergast

    (October 10, 1858 – February 1, 1924) was an American Post-Impressionist artist who worked in oil, watercolor, and monotype. He exhibited as a member of The Eight, though the delicacy of his compositions and mosaic-like beauty of his style differed from the philosophy of the group.


    Maurice Prendergast and his twin sister, Lucy, were born at their family's subarctic trading post in the city of St. John's, in Newfoundland, then a colony in British North America. After the trading post failed, the family moved to Boston. He grew up in the South End, and was apprenticed as a youth to a commercial artist. This conditioned him from the start to the brightly colored, flat patterning effects that characterized his mature work. A shy individual, Maurice remained a bachelor throughout his life. He became closely attached to his younger brother Charles, who was also a post-impressionist painter.


    Prendergast studied in Paris from 1891 to 1895, at the Académie Colarossi with Gustave Courtois and Jean-Joseph Benjamin-Constant, and at the Académie Julian. During one of his early stays in Paris, he met the Canadian painter James Morrice, who introduced him to English avant-garde artists Walter Sickert and Aubrey Beardsley, all ardent admirers of James McNeill Whistler. A further acquaintance with Édouard Vuillard and Pierre Bonnard placed him firmly in the Post-Impressionist camp. He also studied the work of Vincent Van Gogh and Georges Seurat at retrospectives held in Paris in 1891 and 1892. Prendergast was additionally one of the first Americans to espouse the work of Paul Cézanne and to understand and utilize his expressive use of form and color.


    Prendergast returned to Boston in 1895, and worked mainly in watercolor and monotyping. A trip to Venice in 1898 exposed him to the delightful genre scenes of Vittore Carpaccio and encouraged him toward even more complex and rhythmic arrangements. In 1900, he had major exhibitions at the Art Institute of Chicago and at Macbeth Galleries in New York, which earned him critical acclaim. He showed in the National Arts Club exhibition in 1904, through which he befriended the painters William Glackens, Robert Henri, and John French Sloan. He exhibited with them in 1908 at Macbeth Galleries, along with Everett Shinn, Arthur B. Davies, Ernest Lawson, and George Luks, collectively known after the show as The Eight. Glackens in particular became a lifelong friend of Prendergast's.

    Despite poor health that hindered his work, Prendergast continued to show in major exhibitions through the remainder of his life. Albert Barnes and Ferdinald Howald became his patrons after his shows at the Carroll gallery and the Daniel Gallery. He showed seven works at the landmark 1913 Armory Show that showed his stylistic maturity. In 1916, he participated in the Fifty at Montross show at the Montross Gallery, which also included works by Cézanne, Matisse, Seurat, and Van Gogh. His work was the subject of a retrospective at Joseph Brummer Gallery in 1921.


    Prendergast's work was strongly associated from the beginning with leisurely scenes set on beaches and in parks. His early work was mostly in watercolor or monotype, and he produced over two hundred monotypes between 1895 and 1902. He also experimented with oil painting in the 1890s, but did not focus on that medium until the early 1900s.


    He developed and continued to elaborate a highly personal style, with boldly contrasting, jewel-like colors, and flattened, pattern like forms rhythmically arranged on a canvas. Forms were radically simplified and presented in flat areas of bright, unmodulated color. His paintings have been aptly described as tapestry-like or resembling mosaics.


  • Levi Wells Prentice

    (1851 – 1935) was an American still life and landscape painter. Prentice was associated with the Hudson River School, a group of artists known throughout art circles. Prentice grew up on a farm in Lewis County, New York. By 1872, Prentice had traveled through the Adirondack Mountains, painting the views as well as the surrounding region. He opened his first studio as a landscape painter in Syracuse, New York in 1875. A self-taught artist, Prentice is best known for his realistic still life compositions of fruit arranged within a landscape, or abundantly spilling from bushel baskets. Early in his career, he painted portraits and landscapes of the Adirondack Mountain region of Lewis County, N.Y., his birthplace.


    Prentice married an English woman, Emma Roseloe Sparks, in Buffalo in 1882 and had two children. Prentice then turned to painting still life subjects when he moved briefly to Brooklyn, N.Y. in 1883, focusing primarily on fruit. Prentice subsequently moved around from 1903-1907 before settling in the Germantown district of Philadelphia. His work did not gain much recognition with historians until the 1970s. He was a member of the Brooklyn Art Association and frequently exhibited his paintings there.  In addition to his artistic talents, he was a craftsman who enjoyed making his own brushes, palettes and frames. In 1993, Prentice’s work was celebrated in a retrospective exhibition at the Adirondack Museum in New York. His works continue to receive a high degree of appreciation by collectors today. He died in 1935 in Germantown, Penn.


  • Zvi Raphaeli

    (1924 - 2005) was an Israeli impressionist painter. He is known for works that depict street scenes in Israel, scenes from Jewish life and festivities, and occasionally floral still subjects. He was educated in France from the age of three and studied art at the École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts in Paris and also at the Bezalel Academy of Art and Design in Jerusalem, Israel. He initially studied engineering but after losing many close relatives including his father and brother in World War II, Raphaeli decided to study to be an artist. He was a member of the French Resistance during World War II. He moved to Israel in 1945 at the age of 21. Later in his life, he also lived in the United States.


    A Rabbi by profession, Raphaeli merged religion and art deftly in his paintings. His primary medium of painting was oil on canvas, using a prominent impasto technique that brings depth to the subject. In the 1970s, Raphaeli made his stamp as an art critic as well, providing his critique to various other Israeli artists. Raphaeli has also authored and illustrated The Pessach Haggadah, a Jewish text for "telling" from father to son, the story of deliverance of Jews from Egypt.


  • Man Ray

    (1890 – 1976) was an American modernist artist who spent most of his career in Paris, France. He is best known for his avant-garde photography, and he was a renowned fashion and portrait photographer. Ray is also noted for his work with photograms, which he called "rayographs" in reference to himself.  He was a significant contributor to the Dada and Surrealist movements, although his ties to each were informal. He produced major works in a variety of media but considered himself a painter above all.


    Man Ray was born as Emmanuel Radnitzky in South Philadelphia, Penn., in 1890. He was the eldest child of Russian Jewish immigrants, and his father worked in a garment factory and ran a small tailoring business out of the family home. He had a brother and two sisters, the youngest born in 1897 shortly after they settled in the Williamsburg neighborhood of Brooklyn, N.Y. In early 1912, the Radnitzky family changed their surname to Ray. Man Ray's brother chose the surname in reaction to the ethnic discrimination and anti-Semitism prevalent at the time. Emmanuel, who was called "Manny" as a nickname, changed his first name to Man and gradually began to use Man Ray as his combined single name.


  • Pierre Auguste Renoir

    (1841 – 1919) was a French artist who was a leading painter in the development of the Impressionist style. Born in Limoges, he was the son of a tailor, and his mother was a seamstress. The family moved to Paris in 1844. In 1854, at the age of thirteen, Pierre-Auguste Renoir became an apprentice as a porcelain painter and studied drawing in his free time.  In 1860, Renoir was admitted as an authorized copier in the Louvre. He made his first attempts at painting by studying the works of Rubens and Fragonard Renoir. After years as a struggling painter, he helped launch the artistic movement called Impressionism in the 1870s. He eventually became one of the most highly regarded artists of his time.


    He is best known for his portraits of women, children and groups of happy, casual people. More than the other Impressionists, he was interested in form and used rough brushwork to capture it. He continued to paint even after being crippled by arthritis (he had brushes tied to his hands). His paintings always retained their happy feeling, though. He died in Cagnes-sur-Mer, France, in 1919. Besides leaving behind more than 200 works of art, Renoir served as an inspiration to many other artists. Pierre Bonnard, Henri Matisse and Pablo Picasso are just a few who benefitted from Renoir's artistic style and methods.


  • R. Romano
  • Ferdnand Roybet

    (1840 – 1920) was a French painter, born in Uzès, France, to a father who ran a brewery. Endowed with a great talent as a portraitist, Ferdinand Roybet first studied engraving at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Lyon, before coming to Paris in 1863. From his early art training in Lyon, he began his apprenticeship by copying the great Flemish and Italian masters. In 1866, he presented his Fou under Henry III, dressed in red and holding two dogs on a leash. This work, acclaimed by critics was the beginning of a long series of figures in costumes – troopers, musketeers, peasants and courtiers. After the siege of Paris, Roybet undertook several study tours in Belgium and Algeria.


    Roybet was awarded the French Legion of Honor in 1893. At the end of his life, he focused on religious subjects, including a series of 22 paintings depicting the Passion of Christ, which were shown at the Salon after his death in 1921.


  • Salvatore Rosa - Attributed
  • Georges Henri Rouault

    (1871 – 1958) was a French Fauvist and Expressionist painter and a printmaker in lithography and etching. Rouault was born in Paris into a poor family. His mother encouraged his love for the arts, and, in 1885, at age 14, Rouault began a five-year apprenticeship as a glass painter and restorer. This early experience as a glass painter likely led to Rouault’s use of heavy black contouring and glowing colors, which appeared in his later works. During his apprenticeship, Rouault also attended evening classes at the School of Fine Arts, and, in 1891, he entered the École des Beaux-Arts, the official art school of France. Here, he studied under Gustave Moreau and became his favorite student. After Moreau’s death in 1898, Rouault was named curator for the Moreau Museum in Paris. Rouault also met Henri Matisse, Albert Marquet, Henri Manguin and Charles Camoin, whose friendships brought him to the movement of Fauvism.


    After 1917, Rouault dedicated himself to painting. His Christian faith often served as inspiration, identifying him as perhaps the most passionate Christian artist of the 20th century. In 1937, the artist painted "The Old King," which is considered his finest expressionist work. At the end of his life, Rouault burned 300 of his works (estimated to be worth about half a billion francs today) simply because he knew he wouldn’t live long enough to finish them.


  • Gerit van Santen

    (birthdate unknown – 1650) was a Dutch painter recognized for his historical depictions.

  • Hendrik Frans Schaefels

    (1827 – 1904) was a Belgian painter.

  • Friedrik Schilcher

    (1811 – 1881) was an Austrian portrait and history painter. He was born in Vienna and studied at the Vienna Academy. Between 1876 and 1878, he was president of the Vienna Künstlerhaus, an exhibition building in Vienna that was built by the Austrian Artists’ Society – the oldest surviving artists’ society in Austria.

  • Shakespeare (Engraverings)

    William Shakespeare (1564 – 1616) was an English poet and playwright, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world's pre-eminent dramatist.  He is often called England's national poet and the "Bard of Avon." His extant works, including some collaborations, consist of about 38 plays, 154 sonnets, two long narrative poems, two epitaphs on a man named John Combe, one epitaph on Elias James and several other poems. His plays have been translated into every major living language and are performed more often than those of any other playwright.

  • Sir Martin Archer Shee

     (1769 – 1850) was a British portrait painter and president of the Royal Academy. In addition to his portraits he executed various subjects and historical works." He was born in Dublin into an old Catholic Irish family, and his father, a merchant, regarded the profession of painter as an unsuitable occupation for a descendant of the Shees. Martin Shee nevertheless studied art in the Royal Dublin Society and came to London. There, in 1788, he was introduced to Joshua Reynolds, a noted English painter, who advised him to study in the schools of the Royal Academy. In 1789, he exhibited his first two pictures, the "Head of an Old Man" and "Portrait of a Gentleman."


    Over the next decade, Shee steadily grew as an artist. He was chosen an associate of the Royal Academy in 1798, and in 1800, was elected a Royal Academician. On the death of Sir Thomas Lawrence in 1830, Shee was chosen president of the Royal Academy and shortly afterwards received a knighthood. In 1831 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society. Shee continued to paint till 1845, when illness made him retire to Brighton. He died in Brighton in 1850.


  • Everett Shinn

    (1876 – 1953) was an American realist painter and member of the Ashcan School, also known as “The Eight.” He was the youngest member of the group of modernist painters who explored the depiction of real life. He is most famous for his numerous paintings of New York and the theater and of various aspects of luxury and modern life inspired by his home in New York City. Shinn left Woodstown at the age of fourteen and enrolled at a technical institution known as the Spring Garden Institute in Philadelphia from 1888-1890. The school specialized in the teaching of mechanical drawing and architecture and was also attended by fellow member of “The Eight,” John Sloan.


    Following his education, Shinn spent a year working at the Thackery Gas Fixture Works designing light fixtures. After being fired for doodling in the margins of his plans, his former employer urged him to go into a more creative field, citing the newspaper and magazine industries as examples. In 1893, he began working for the Philadelphia Press as an illustrator. He moved from paper to paper for the rest of his illustrating career. In 1899, he began working for Ainslee's Magazine, a publication that also employed his wife, also a successful illustrator. Shinn started displaying his work publicly in 1899 with mixed reactions. In 1900, he traveled to Europe to study and prepare for his next exhibit and was greatly influenced by the theatrical portrayals and impressionist works.


  • Charles Sims

    (1873 – 1928) was a British painter of portraits, landscapes and decorative paintings. He is considered an exponent of Outsider Art – an artist whose work developed an idiosyncratic style through psychiatric disorder. Born in Islington, London, Sims was the son of a costume manufacturer. Initially apprenticed in the drapery business, he moved to art in 1890 and enrolled at the South Kensington College of Art, before moving to Paris for two years at the Académie Julian. He later returned to London and enrolled at the Royal Academy School in 1893.


    An expert at portraying sunlit landscapes, Sims specialized in society portraits and neo-classical fantasies, typically idealized scenes of women, children or fairies in outdoor settings. In 1906, a one-man show at the Leicester Galleries brought him critical and financial success. World War I was a traumatic experience for Sims. In 1914, his eldest son was killed, and he worked for a time as a war artist in 1918. Post-war, his work changed track, and he began to develop religious and reclusive tendencies. Despite being given the keepership of the Royal Academy in 1920, he resigned and went to the United States to paint portraits. His final paintings, termed "Spirituals," featured naked figures against abstract apocalyptic backdrops. These were rejected by the artistic establishment for their baffling content and modernist style. In 1928, experiencing hallucinations, paranoia and insomnia, the artist committed suicide by drowning himself in the River Tweed near his home in St. Boswells, Scotland.


  • Frank Stella

    (born May 12, 1936) is an American painter and printmaker, noted for his work in the areas of minimalism and post-painterly abstraction.


    Stella was born in Malden, Massachusetts, to parents of Italian descent. After attending high school at Phillips Academy in Andover, Massachusetts, he attended Princeton University, where he majored in history and met Darby Bannard and Michael Fried. Early visits to New York art galleries influenced his artist development, and his work was influenced by the abstract expressionism of Jackson Pollock and Franz Kline. Stella moved to New York in 1958, after his graduation. He is one of the most well-regarded postwar American painters still working today. Frank Stella has reinvented himself in consecutive bodies of work over the course of his five-decade career. Notably, he is heralded for creating abstract paintings that bear no pictorial illusions or psychological or metaphysical references in twentieth-century painting.


    Upon moving to New York City, he reacted against the expressive use of paint by most painters of the abstract expressionist movement, instead finding himself drawn towards the "flatter" surfaces of Barnett Newman's work and the "target" paintings of Jasper Johns. He began to produce works which emphasized the picture-as-object, rather than the picture as a representation of something, be it something in the physical world, or something in the artist's emotional world. Stella married Barbara Rose, later a well-known art critic, in 1961. Around this time he said that a picture was "a flat surface with paint on it - nothing more". This was a departure from the technique of creating a painting by first making a sketch. Many of the works are created by simply using the path of the brush stroke, very often using common house paint.


    This new aesthetic found expression in a series of paintings, the Black Paintings (69) in which regular bands of black paint were separated by very thin pinstripes of unpainted canvas. Die Fahne Hoch! (1959) is one such painting. It takes its name ("The Raised Banner" in English) from the first line of the Horst-Wessel-Lied, the anthem of the National Socialist German Workers Party, and Stella pointed out that it is in the same proportions as banners used by that organization. It has been suggested that the title has a double meaning, referring also to Jasper Johns' paintings of flags. In any case, its emotional coolness belies the contentiousness its title might suggest, reflecting this new direction in Stella's work. Stella’s art was recognized for its innovations before he was twenty-five. In 1959, several of his paintings were included in "Three Young Americans" at the Allen Memorial Art Museum at Oberlin College, as well as in "Sixteen Americans" at the Museum of Modern Art in New York. Stella joined dealer Leo Castelli’s stable of artists in 1959. From 1960 he began to produce paintings in aluminum and copper paint which, in their presentation of regular lines of color separated by pinstripes, are similar to his black paintings. However they use a wider range of colors, and are his first works using shaped canvases (canvases in a shape other than the traditional rectangle or square), often being in L, N, U or T-shapes. These later developed into more elaborate designs, in the Irregular Polygon series, for example.


    Stella began his extended engagement with printmaking in the mid-1960s, working first with master printer Kenneth Tyler at Gemini G.E.L. Stella produced a series of prints during the late 1960s starting with a print called Quathlamba I in 1968. Stella's abstract prints in lithography, screen printing, etching and offset lithography (a technique he introduced) had a strong impact upon printmaking as an art.


    In 1967, he designed the set and costumes for Scramble, a dance piece by Merce Cunningham. The Museum of Modern Art in New York presented a retrospective of Stella’s work in 1970, making him the youngest artist to receive one. During the following decade, Stella introduced relief into his art, which he came to call “maximalist” painting for its sculptural qualities. Ironically, the paintings that had brought him fame before 1960 had eliminated all such depth. The shaped canvases took on even less regular forms in the Eccentric Polygon series, and elements of collage were introduced, pieces of canvas being pasted onto plywood, for example. His work also became more three-dimensional to the point where he started producing large, free-standing metal pieces, which, although they are painted upon, might well be considered sculpture. After introducing wood and other materials in the Polish Village series, created in high relief, he began to use aluminum as the primary support for his paintings. As the 1970s and 1980s progressed, these became more elaborate and exuberant. Indeed, his earlier Minimalism became baroque, marked by curving forms, Day-Glo colors, and scrawled brushstrokes. Similarly, his prints of these decades combined various printmaking and drawing techniques.


    From the mid-1980s to the mid-1990s, Stella created a large body of work that responded in a general way to Herman Melville’s Moby-Dick. During this time, the increasingly deep relief of Stella’s paintings gave way to full three-dimensionality, with sculptural forms derived from cones, pillars, French curves, waves, and decorative architectural elements. To create these works, the artist used collages or maquettes that were then enlarged and re-created with the aids of assistants, industrial metal cutters, and digital technologies.


    In the 1990s, Stella began making free-standing sculpture for public spaces and developing architectural projects. In 1993, for example, he created the entire decorative scheme for Toronto’s Princess of Wales Theatre, which includes a 10,000-square-foot mural. His 1993 proposal for a kunsthalle and garden in Dresden did not come to fruition. In 1997, he painted and oversaw the installation of the 5,000-square-foot "Stella Project" which serves as the centerpiece of the theater and lobby of the Moores Opera House located at the Rebecca and John J. Moores School of Music on the campus of the University of Houston, in Houston, Texas. His aluminum bandshell, inspired by a folding hat from Brazil, was built in downtown Miami in 2001; a monumental Stella sculpture was installed outside the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C.

    Stella continues to live and work in New York.


    © 2013 Frank Stella / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York

  • Alfred Emile Leopold Stevens

    (1823 – 1906) was a Belgian painter born in Brussels. He came from a family involved with the visual arts: his older brother Joseph (1816–1892) and his son Léopold (1866–1935) were painters, while another brother Arthur (1825–99) was an art dealer and critic. His father, who had fought in the Napoleonic wars in the army of William I of the Netherlands, was an art collector who owned several watercolors by Eugène Delacroix, among other artists. His mother's parents ran Café de l'Amitié in Brussels, a meeting place for politicians, writers, and artists. All the Stevens children benefited from the people they met there, and the social skills they acquired in growing up around important people.

  • William Lester Stevens

     (1888 - 1969) began his art education taking lessons from Parker Perkins, a marine painter in his hometown of Rockport. He went on to spend four years at the Museum of Fine Arts School in Boston under the tutelage of Edmund Tarbell, Frank Benson, Philip Hale and William Paxton. After some time in the army and further art education in Europe, Stevens began teaching; first in Rockport then at Boston University and Princeton. Later he would take groups of students all over the country. His work was particularly well received in the South. Stevens spent some time in North Carolina teaching and exhibiting his work though he continued to call Massachusetts home. Stevens was fanatically devoted to his work and as such was extremely prolific. His early works are characterized by thick, impasto oil paint, but later in his career he tended more towards translucent washes of acrylic or watercolor.

  • Gilbert Charles Stuart

    (1755 – 1828) was an American painter from Rhode Island.  Stuart is widely considered to be one of America's foremost portrait artists. His best known work, the unfinished portrait of George Washington that is sometimes referred to as The Athenaeum, was begun in 1796 and never finished; Stuart retained the portrait and used it to paint 130 copies which he sold for $100 each. The image of George Washington featured in the painting has appeared on the United States one-dollar bill for over a century, and on various U.S. Postage stamps of the 19th century and early 20th century.


    Throughout his career, Gilbert Stuart produced portraits of over a thousand people, including the first six Presidents of the United States. His work can be found today at art museums across the United States and the United Kingdom, most notably the Metropolitan Museum of Art and Frick Collection in New York City, the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C., the National Portrait Gallery in London, Worcester Art Museum in Massachusetts, and the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston.


  • Francis Monamy Swaine

    (1725–1782) was an English marine painter.

  • Douglas Arthur Teed

    (1860 - 1929) was an American painter. Teed began painting as a small boy in Utica, New York, having opened his own study by the age of fourteen. In his youth, Teed spent many hours in the studio of George Inness, whose tonalist landscapes greatly impressed the growing artist. Teed lived in New York as a billboard painter until 1890.


    Later that year he opened a studio in Rome. This would serve as the home base for his five year study in Europe.  Teed found, "a land in which art had a tradition of hundreds of years of immense imaginative achievements, a lovely and dramatically varied countryside, great paintings of the past to inspire him, the accumulated magic and splendor of the past." The popular trends in European art at that time are mirrored in his paintings.


    Teed returned to his New York studio in 1895. He earned his living by paintings portraits and landscapes. Most of his work was sold to private collectors; often painting in trade of other services.


  • Constantin Terechiovitch

    (1902-1978) was a painter and lithographer.  His aliases included Constantine Terechkovitch; Konstantin Terechkovitch; Kostia Terechkovitch; Kostja Terechkovitch; Konstantin Tereschkowitsch; Kostja Tereschkowitsch; Konstantin Andreevich Tereshkovich; Konstantin Andreevič Tereškovi; and Konstantin Tereškovič.

  • Frank Topham

    (1808-1877) was a genre and portrait painter in oil and watercolor. Born in London, he studied art at the Royal Academy Schools, and in Paris at the Atelier Gleyre, and his work was regularly exhibited at the Royal Academy. Topham lived near Guildford in Surrey and died on 25th May 1924.

  • Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec

    (November 24, 1864 –September 9, 1901) was a French painter, printmaker, draughtsman and illustrator whose immersion in the colorful and theatrical life of Paris in the late 1800s yielded a collection of exciting, elegant and provocative images of the modern and sometimes decadent life of those times. Toulouse-Lautrec, along with Cézanne, Van Gogh and Gauguin, are among the most well-known painters of the Post-Impressionist period. In a 2005 auction at Christie's auction house a new record was set when La Blanchisseuse, an early painting of a young laundress, sold for $22.4 million U.S.


    Throughout his career, which spanned less than 20 years, Toulouse-Lautrec created 737 canvases, 275 watercolours, 363 prints and posters, 5,084 drawings, some ceramic and stained glass work, and an unknown number of lost works. His debt to the Impressionists, in particular the more figurative painters Manet and Degas, is apparent. His style was influenced by the classical Japanese woodprints, which became popular in art circles in Paris. In his works can be seen parallels to Manet's detached barmaid at a bar at the Folies-Bergère and the behind-the-scenes ballet dancers of Degas. He excelled at capturing people in their working environment, with the color and the movement of the gaudy night-life present but the glamour stripped away. He was masterly at capturing crowd scenes in which the figures are highly individualized. At the time that they were painted, the individual figures in his larger paintings could be identified by silhouette alone, and the names of many of these characters have been recorded. His treatment of his subject matter, whether as portraits, scenes of Parisian night-life, or intimate studies, has been described as both sympathetic and dispassionate.


    Toulouse-Lautrec's skilled depiction of people relied on his painterly style which is highly linear and gives great emphasis to contour. He often applied the paint in long, thin brushstrokes which would often leave much of the board on which they are painted showing through. Many of his works may best be described as drawings in colored paint.

  • Paul Desire Trouillebert

    (1829-1900) was a famous French Barbizon School painter in the mid-nineteenth and the early twentieth centuries. He was born in Paris, France in 1829 and died there on June 28, 1900. He was a student of Ernest Hébert (1817–1908) and Charles-François Jalabert (1819–1901), and made his debut at the Paris Salon in 1865. He produced landscapes and was also interested in orientalism. Trouillebert also produced paintings of nudes; he painted a portrait of a half-nude young woman in an ancient Egyptian style of the Greco-Roman Dynasty called it Servante du harem (The Harem Servant Girl). In 1884, his painting of nudes, The Bathers, was well received by the Paris Salon.

  • Fernand Toussaint

    (1873-1956) was born into a cultivated upper-middle class family in Brussels in 1873. His artistic talent was discovered during his childhood and was encouraged by his family to further develop his skills. At the age of 15, Toussaint began his artistic education at the Art Academy of Brussels under the tutorship of the renowned portrait painter Jean-François Portaels from 1889 until 1894. Portaels was the first Belgian Orientalist painter to have traveled extensively throughout the Middle East and was an important and influential portraitist. As a teacher and director of the Academy, he taught the basics of painting to students while still allowing them to freely express themselves. Toussaint eventually completed his artistic studies in Paris, where he studied under renowned Belgian portraitist Alfred Stevens. Stevens, a personal friend of Charles Baudelaire, Edouard Manet and Edgar Degas, specialized in portraits of mundane women, and was one of the first artists of his time to integrate Japanese elements into his works.


    Toussaint was primarily known as a painter and watercolorist of female portraits, which he presented in a rich and elegant manner. His works were usually commissioned by the upper-middle class and noble families. His models were always dressed in the latest fashion, often accompanied by an umbrella or a hat, and seated on a bench in a house interior. The gazes of the women are honest, barely provocative and dreamy. Avant-garde art magazines in Paris took notice of him when he was awarded the gold medal for a portrait of an elegant lady at the renowned “Salon des Artistes Français” in Paris in 1929.


    © 2013 Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York / SABAM, Brussels

  • Constant Troyon

    (1810 - 1865), was a French painter, born in Sèvres, near Paris. Troyon was an animal painter of the first rank, and was closely associated with the artists who painted around Barbizon. The technical qualities of his methods of painting are most masterly; his drawing is excellent, and his composition always interesting.  It was only comparatively late in life that Troyon found his métier, but when he realized his power of painting animals he produced a fairly large number of good pictures in a few years. Troyon entered the ateliers very young as a decorator, and until he was twenty he labored assiduously at the minute details of porcelain ornamentation; and this kind of work he mastered so thoroughly that it was many years before he overcame its limitations. By the time he reached twenty-one he was travelling the country as an artist, and painting landscapes so long as his finances lasted. Then when pressed for money he made friends with the first china manufacturer he met and worked steadily at his old business of decorator until he had accumulated enough funds to permit him to start again on his wanderings.


    Troyon was a favorite with Camille Roqueplan, an artist of distinction eight years his senior, and he became one of his pupils. Roqueplan introduced Troyon to Rousseau, Jules Dupré, and the other Barbizon painters, and in his pictures between 1840 and 1847 he seemed to endeavor to follow in their footsteps. But as a landscapist Troyon would never have been recognized as a thorough master, although his work of the period is marked with much sincerity and met with a certain success. Troyon died, unmarried, at Paris on February 21, 1865. All his famous pictures are of date between 1850 and 1864, his earlier work being of comparatively little value. His mother, who survived him, instituted the Troyon prize for animal pictures at the École des Beaux Arts.


  • Augusto Truelle

    (1818 - 1908) was a landscape painter.

  • School of Turner, J.M.W.
  • J.H. Twachtman
  • Rembrandt van Rijn

    (July 15, 1606 –October 4, 1669) was a Dutch painter and etcher. He is generally considered one of the greatest painters and printmakers in European art history and the most important in Dutch history. His contributions to art came in a period of great wealth and cultural achievement that historians call the Dutch Golden Age when Dutch Golden Age painting, although in many ways antithetical to the Baroque style that dominated Europe, was extremely prolific and innovative.


    Having achieved youthful success as a portrait painter, Rembrandt's later years were marked by personal tragedy and financial hardships. Yet his etchings and paintings were popular throughout his lifetime, his reputation as an artist remained high, and for twenty years he taught many important Dutch painters. Rembrandt's greatest creative triumphs are exemplified especially in his portraits of his contemporaries, self-portraits and illustrations of scenes from the Bible. His self-portraits form a unique and intimate biography, in which the artist surveyed himself without vanity and with the utmost sincerity.


    In his paintings and prints he exhibited knowledge of classical iconography, which he molded to fit the requirements of his own experience; thus, the depiction of a biblical scene was informed by Rembrandt's knowledge of the specific text, his assimilation of classical composition, and his observations of Amsterdam's Jewish population. Because of his empathy for the human condition, he has been called "one of the great prophets of civilization."


    In a letter to Huygens, Rembrandt offered the only surviving explanation of what he sought to achieve through his art: the greatest and most natural movement, translated from de meeste en de natuurlijkste beweegelijkheid. The word "beweechgelickhijt" is also argued to mean "emotion" or "motive." Whether this refers to objectives, material or otherwise is open to interpretation; either way, critics have drawn particular attention to the way Rembrandt seamlessly melded the earthly and spiritual.


    Earlier 20th century connoisseurs claimed Rembrandt had produced over 600 paintings, nearly 400 etchings and 2,000 drawings. More recent scholarship, from the 1960s to the present day (led by the Rembrandt Research Project), often controversially, has winnowed his oeuvre to nearer 300 paintings. His prints, traditionally all called etchings, although many are produced in whole or part by engraving and sometimes dry point, have a much more stable total of slightly fewer than 300. It is likely Rembrandt made many more drawings in his lifetime than 2,000, but those extant are more rare than presumed. Two experts claim that the number of drawings whose autograph status can be regarded as effectively "certain" is no higher than about 75, although this is disputed. The list was to be unveiled at a scholarly meeting in February 2010.


    At one time about ninety paintings were counted as Rembrandt self-portraits, but it is now known that he had his students copy his own self-portraits as part of their training. Modern scholarship has reduced the autograph count to over forty paintings, as well as a few drawings and thirty-one etchings, which include many of the most remarkable images of the group. Some show him posing in quasi-historical fancy dress, or pulling faces at himself. His oil paintings trace the progress from an uncertain young man, through the dapper and very successful portrait-painter of the 1630s, to the troubled but massively powerful portraits of his old age. Together they give a remarkably clear picture of the man, his appearance and his psychological make-up, as revealed by his richly weathered face.

    In his portraits and self-portraits, he angles the sitter's face in such a way that the ridge of the nose nearly always forms the line of demarcation between brightly illuminated and shadowy areas. A Rembrandt face is a face partially eclipsed; and the nose, bright and obvious, thrusting into the riddle of halftones, serves to focus the viewer's attention upon, and to dramatize, the division between a flood of light—an overwhelming clarity—and a brooding duskiness.


    In a number of biblical works, including The Raising of the Cross, Joseph Telling His Dreams and The Stoning of Saint Stephen, Rembrandt painted himself as a character in the crowd. Durham suggests that this was because the Bible was for Rembrandt "a kind of diary, an account of moments in his own life."


    Among the more prominent characteristics of Rembrandt's work are his use of chiaroscuro, the theatrical employment of light and shadow derived from Caravaggio, or, more likely, from the Dutch Caravaggisti, but adapted for very personal means. Also notable are his dramatic and lively presentation of subjects, devoid of the rigid formality that his contemporaries often displayed, and a deeply felt compassion for mankind, irrespective of wealth and age. His immediate family—his wife Saskia, his son Titus and his common-law wife Hendrickje—often figured prominently in his paintings, many of which had mythical, biblical or historical themes.


    Throughout his career Rembrandt took as his primary subjects the themes of portraiture, landscape and narrative painting. For the last, he was especially praised by his contemporaries, who extolled him as a masterly interpreter of biblical stories for his skill in representing emotions and attention to detail. Stylistically, his paintings progressed from the early "smooth" manner, characterized by fine technique in the portrayal of illusionistic form, to the late "rough" treatment of richly variegated paint surfaces, which allowed for an illusionism of form suggested by the tactile quality of the paint itself.

    A parallel development may be seen in Rembrandt's skill as a printmaker. In the etchings of his maturity, particularly from the late 1640s onward, the freedom and breadth of his drawings and paintings found expression in the print medium as well. The works encompass a wide range of subject matter and technique, sometimes leaving large areas of white paper to suggest space, at other times employing complex webs of line to produce rich dark tones.


    It was during Rembrandt's Leiden period (1625–1631) that Lastman's influence was most prominent. It is also likely that at this time Lievens had a strong impact on his work as well. Paintings were rather small, but rich in details (for example, in costumes and jewelry). Religious and allegorical themes were favored, as were tronies. In 1626 Rembrandt produced his first etchings, the wide dissemination of which would largely account for his international fame. In 1629 he completed Judas Repentant, Returning the Pieces of Silver and The Artist in His Studio, works that evidence his interest in the handling of light and variety of paint application, and constitute the first major progress in his development as a painter.


    During his early years in Amsterdam (1632–1636), Rembrandt began to paint dramatic biblical and mythological scenes in high contrast and of large format (The Blinding of Samson, 1636, Belshazzar's Feast, c. 1635 Danaë, 1636), seeking to emulate the baroque style of Rubens. With the occasional help of assistants in Uylenburgh's workshop, he painted numerous portrait commissions both small (Jacob de Gheyn III) and large (Portrait of the Shipbuilder Jan Rijcksen and his Wife, 1633, Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp, 1632).


    By the late 1630s Rembrandt had produced a few paintings and many etchings of landscapes. Often these landscapes highlighted natural drama, featuring uprooted trees and ominous skies (Cottages before a Stormy Sky, c. 1641, The Three Trees, 1643). From 1640 his work became less exuberant and more sober in tone, possibly reflecting personal tragedy. Biblical scenes were now derived more often from the New Testament than the Old Testament, as had been the case before. In 1642 he painted The Night Watch, the most notable of the important group portrait commissions which he received in this period, and through which he sought to find solutions to compositional and narrative problems that had been attempted in previous works.


    In the decade following The Night Watch, Rembrandt's paintings varied greatly in size, subject, and style. The previous tendency to create dramatic effects primarily by strong contrasts of light and shadow gave way to the use of frontal lighting and larger and more saturated areas of color. Simultaneously, figures came to be placed parallel to the picture plane. These changes can be seen as a move toward a classical mode of composition and, considering the more expressive use of brushwork as well, may indicate a familiarity with Venetian art (Susanna and the Elders, 1637–47). At the same time, there was a marked decrease in painted works in favor of etchings and drawings of landscapes. In these graphic works natural drama eventually made way for quiet Dutch rural scenes.

    In the 1650s, Rembrandt's style changed again. Colors became richer and brush strokes more pronounced. With these changes, Rembrandt distanced himself from earlier work and current fashion, which increasingly inclined toward fine, detailed works. His singular approach to paint application may have been suggested in part by familiarity with the work of Titian, and could be seen in the context of the then current discussion of 'finish' and surface quality of paintings. Contemporary accounts sometimes remark disapprovingly of the coarseness of Rembrandt's brushwork, and the artist himself was said to have dissuaded visitors from looking too closely at his paintings. The tactile manipulation of paint may hearken to medieval procedures, when mimetic effects of rendering informed a painting's surface. The end result is a richly varied handling of paint, deeply layered and often apparently haphazard, which suggests form and space in both an illusory and highly individual manner.


    In later years biblical themes were still depicted often, but emphasis shifted from dramatic group scenes to intimate portrait-like figures (James the Apostle, 1661). In his last years, Rembrandt painted his most deeply reflective self-portraits (from 1652 to 1669 he painted fifteen), and several moving images of both men and women (The Jewish Bride, c. 1666)—in love, in life, and before God.


  • Eugen von Blaas


    (1843 – 1932) was an Italian painter in the school known as Academic Classicism. He was born at Albano, near Rome, to Austrian parents. His father Karl, also a painter, was his teacher. The family moved to Venice when Karl became Professor at the Academy in Venice. He often painted scenes in Venice, but also portraits and religious paintings. He became professor in the Academy of Venice.


    Among his works are La forma nuziale in sacrestia; La tombola in Campielo a Venezia; Una scena di burattini in un educanciatu; and La Ninetta. His colorful and rather theatrical period images of Venetian society, e.g. On the Balcony (1877; Private Collection), were quite different compared to delicate pastels and etchings of the courtyards, balcony and canals of modern Venice.


  • James Abbott McNeill Whistler

    (1834 – 1903) was an American-born, British-based artist. Averse to sentimentality and moral allusion in painting, he was a leading proponent of the credo, "art for art's sake." His famous signature for his paintings was in the shape of a stylized butterfly possessing a long stinger for a tail. The symbol was apt, for it combined both aspects of his personality—his art was characterized by a subtle delicacy, while his public persona was combative. Finding a parallel between painting and music, Whistler entitled many of his paintings "arrangements," “harmonies,” and "nocturnes." His most famous painting is Whistler's Mother (1871), the revered and oft parodied portrait of motherhood. Whistler influenced the art world and the broader culture of his time with his artistic theories and his friendships with leading artists and writers.

  • Gustave Adolph Wiegand

    (1870-1975) was a 19th Century German painter who was born in 1870. Numerous works by the artist have been sold at auction, including 'MONARCH OF THE HILLS' sold at Sotheby's New York 'Arcade American and Latin American Art' in 2004. The artist died in 1957.

  • John Hans Zatzka


  • Unknown Artist - German 18th Century
  • Unknown Artist - European - 17th Century
  • Unknown Artist - European 18th - 19th Century
  • Unknown Artist - European 19th Century
  • Unknown Artist - European 19th Century
  • Unknown Artist - Italian 17th -18th Century